Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Scientists create bacteria with man-made DNA

Scientists create bacteria with man-made DNA

New approach to waking up sleeping genes could help people with Prader-Willi syndrome

New approach to waking up sleeping genes could help people with Prader-Willi syndrome

Researchers identify first gene that predisposes to fainting

Researchers identify first gene that predisposes to fainting

Researchers identify why lymphoma patients may become resistant to specific drug

Researchers identify why lymphoma patients may become resistant to specific drug

Study: Under-connectivity is the underlying cause of brain disorders

Study: Under-connectivity is the underlying cause of brain disorders

Sussex scientists discover new genetic defect that causes intellectual disability

Sussex scientists discover new genetic defect that causes intellectual disability

Researchers use genomics to solve a 20-year case study

Researchers use genomics to solve a 20-year case study

MIT scientists reverse some behavioral symptoms of rare neurodevelopmental disorder

MIT scientists reverse some behavioral symptoms of rare neurodevelopmental disorder

New gene therapy cures babies with fatal 'Bubble Boy' disease

New gene therapy cures babies with fatal 'Bubble Boy' disease

Maternal age has no effect on IVF success, conclude researchers

Maternal age has no effect on IVF success, conclude researchers

Bacteria use viruses for self-recognition, study reveals

Bacteria use viruses for self-recognition, study reveals

Rare gut condition is more predictable from individual's genetic makeup, study finds

Rare gut condition is more predictable from individual's genetic makeup, study finds

New resource accelerates use of FISH techniques to study spatial organization of DNA in cells

New resource accelerates use of FISH techniques to study spatial organization of DNA in cells

Research unravels possible factor for female bias in lupus

Research unravels possible factor for female bias in lupus

Maternal smoking and pre-eclampsia may affect fertility of offspring

Maternal smoking and pre-eclampsia may affect fertility of offspring

People born with short telomeres found to have short-lived immune system cells

People born with short telomeres found to have short-lived immune system cells

Study finds novel opportunity for treating subgroup of cancer patients with MSI-H tumors

Study finds novel opportunity for treating subgroup of cancer patients with MSI-H tumors

Research provides opportunities for biological control of insect-borne pathogens

Research provides opportunities for biological control of insect-borne pathogens

Immune system errors linked to development of childhood leukemia

Immune system errors linked to development of childhood leukemia

Study: Female birds have longer, healthier lifespan when they have help raising offspring

Study: Female birds have longer, healthier lifespan when they have help raising offspring