Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Adult SMA patients treated with Nusinersen show improvement in motor function

Adult SMA patients treated with Nusinersen show improvement in motor function

Children with Down syndrome at greater risk of an associated form of arthritis

Children with Down syndrome at greater risk of an associated form of arthritis

Study uncovers cause for spatial-memory deficits in people with Down syndrome

Study uncovers cause for spatial-memory deficits in people with Down syndrome

Scientists visualize complex cellular machine to yield new insights in cancer

Scientists visualize complex cellular machine to yield new insights in cancer

Researchers identify new kidney cancer subtypes and clues to better diagnosis, treatment

Researchers identify new kidney cancer subtypes and clues to better diagnosis, treatment

Study identifies a kinase as potential target to treat heart failure

Study identifies a kinase as potential target to treat heart failure

Botswana now the origin of humans

Botswana now the origin of humans

Wisconsin study: 3 in 5 people with Down syndrome diagnosed with dementia by age 55

Wisconsin study: 3 in 5 people with Down syndrome diagnosed with dementia by age 55

Some types of proteins can stabilize damaged DNA

Some types of proteins can stabilize damaged DNA

$5 million in federal funding to accelerate potential treatments for urea cycle disorders

$5 million in federal funding to accelerate potential treatments for urea cycle disorders

Study reveals novel druggable driver gene in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors

Study reveals novel druggable driver gene in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors

Study seeks participants with VCFS-related psychosis to help create biobank of cerebral organoids

Study seeks participants with VCFS-related psychosis to help create biobank of cerebral organoids

Researchers receive $3.2 million NIH grant to pursue a deeper understanding of Down syndrome

Researchers receive $3.2 million NIH grant to pursue a deeper understanding of Down syndrome

Newly discovered organelle could help prevent cancer

Newly discovered organelle could help prevent cancer

Study shows how mouse X and Y chromosomes compete with each other to control sex of offspring

Study shows how mouse X and Y chromosomes compete with each other to control sex of offspring

Researchers discover genes linked to sex ratio and male fertility in mice

Researchers discover genes linked to sex ratio and male fertility in mice

Researchers develop new cheap method to identify aggressive tumors

Researchers develop new cheap method to identify aggressive tumors

Researchers uncover novel molecular clues for tumor aggression in neurofibromatosis type 1

Researchers uncover novel molecular clues for tumor aggression in neurofibromatosis type 1

Scientists successfully create age-resistant mice with hyper-long telomeres

Scientists successfully create age-resistant mice with hyper-long telomeres

Rotavirus plays role in development of type 1 diabetes

Rotavirus plays role in development of type 1 diabetes