Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Researchers identify multiple genetic variants associated with body fat distribution

Researchers identify multiple genetic variants associated with body fat distribution

Conformance of genetic characteristics found to be crucial for longer preservation of kidney graft

Conformance of genetic characteristics found to be crucial for longer preservation of kidney graft

Low physical fitness during adolescence associated with later receipt of disability pension

Low physical fitness during adolescence associated with later receipt of disability pension

Newly discovered genetic disorder opens way for future diabetes drugs

Newly discovered genetic disorder opens way for future diabetes drugs

Study reveals how one mutation causes the most common inherited intellectual disability

Study reveals how one mutation causes the most common inherited intellectual disability

Researchers map extremely complex chromosome aberrations using DNA puzzle pieces

Researchers map extremely complex chromosome aberrations using DNA puzzle pieces

Researchers identify genes that make Staphyloccocus bacteria resistant to treatment

Researchers identify genes that make Staphyloccocus bacteria resistant to treatment

Researchers reveal novel computational tool used to analyze genetic variation

Researchers reveal novel computational tool used to analyze genetic variation

Zebrafish offers clue to alleviate gastrointestinal distress related to autism

Zebrafish offers clue to alleviate gastrointestinal distress related to autism

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 appears to be potential target to treat Down syndrome

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 appears to be potential target to treat Down syndrome

Study: BldC protein in Streptomyces acts as ‘brake’ to control timing of sporulation

Study: BldC protein in Streptomyces acts as ‘brake’ to control timing of sporulation

Large genetic analysis of impulsiveness reveals links with psychiatric disorders

Large genetic analysis of impulsiveness reveals links with psychiatric disorders

Study sheds light on the genetic causes of tumors in salivary glands

Study sheds light on the genetic causes of tumors in salivary glands

Researchers discover how transcription factors find specific loci within DNA

Researchers discover how transcription factors find specific loci within DNA

Study shows that aging and chronic diseases share common genetic factors

Study shows that aging and chronic diseases share common genetic factors

Big data opens door for characterizing immunity-related genome in Japanese population

Big data opens door for characterizing immunity-related genome in Japanese population

RNA-induced gene fusion can occur in mammalian cells, reveals study

RNA-induced gene fusion can occur in mammalian cells, reveals study

Nine early career scientists named 2019 recipients of the Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Award

Nine early career scientists named 2019 recipients of the Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Award

Novel therapeutic approach for treatment of leukemia

Novel therapeutic approach for treatment of leukemia

Researchers uncover new role of heterochromatin in maintaining chromosomal integrity

Researchers uncover new role of heterochromatin in maintaining chromosomal integrity