Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Scientists identify pathways that reveal insights into mechanism of lung cancer etiology

Scientists identify pathways that reveal insights into mechanism of lung cancer etiology

Scientists uncover key control mechanism of DNA replication

Scientists uncover key control mechanism of DNA replication

Brown University researchers reveal key physical properties of 'giant' cancer cells

Brown University researchers reveal key physical properties of 'giant' cancer cells

FDA approves first oral medication for treatment of adults with Fabry disease

FDA approves first oral medication for treatment of adults with Fabry disease

Koala virus could provide clues to accumulated 'junk' DNA in the human genome

Koala virus could provide clues to accumulated 'junk' DNA in the human genome

Study finds false negatives in common tests used to determine ROS1 status in lung cancer

Study finds false negatives in common tests used to determine ROS1 status in lung cancer

Genetic testing before embryo transfer makes no difference to live birth rates

Genetic testing before embryo transfer makes no difference to live birth rates

CHOP experts identify new autoimmune disorder along with personalized treatment for young patient

CHOP experts identify new autoimmune disorder along with personalized treatment for young patient

MGH researchers explore how genetic abnormality in Ewing sarcoma unleashes tumor growth

MGH researchers explore how genetic abnormality in Ewing sarcoma unleashes tumor growth

Researchers identify genes linked to childhood nephrotic syndrome

Researchers identify genes linked to childhood nephrotic syndrome

Answer to decades-old mystery may allow some children to avoid bone marrow transplantation

Answer to decades-old mystery may allow some children to avoid bone marrow transplantation

New mouse model shows great promise for Rett syndrome research

New mouse model shows great promise for Rett syndrome research

Researchers study whole genome sequences of human induced pluripotent stem cells

Researchers study whole genome sequences of human induced pluripotent stem cells

Mutated gene linked to 3-year-old girl's severe neurological symptoms

Mutated gene linked to 3-year-old girl's severe neurological symptoms

Researchers uncover cause for progression of prostate cancer to incurable stage

Researchers uncover cause for progression of prostate cancer to incurable stage

Researchers raise viability of cloned mice using somatic cell nuclear transfer method

Researchers raise viability of cloned mice using somatic cell nuclear transfer method

Study findings highlight importance of early detection of SMA through newborn screening

Study findings highlight importance of early detection of SMA through newborn screening

Researchers solve mystery of final blood group system

Researchers solve mystery of final blood group system

Research sheds on how new species may arise from rapid mitochondrial evolution

Research sheds on how new species may arise from rapid mitochondrial evolution

New findings refine link between clonal hematopoiesis and blood cancer risk

New findings refine link between clonal hematopoiesis and blood cancer risk