Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
USC study reveals how the cell launches emergency response to repair damaged DNA

USC study reveals how the cell launches emergency response to repair damaged DNA

Scientists explore interactions between chromosomes 12 and 17

Scientists explore interactions between chromosomes 12 and 17

Researchers identify gene enhancer that affects sex determination

Researchers identify gene enhancer that affects sex determination

Researchers discover protein responsible for X chromosome inactivation

Researchers discover protein responsible for X chromosome inactivation

Scientists shed light on key aspect of healthy cell division

Scientists shed light on key aspect of healthy cell division

Researchers discover three genes that may have contributed to evolution of large human brain

Researchers discover three genes that may have contributed to evolution of large human brain

Scientists develop new method to speed up genome evolution of baker's yeast

Scientists develop new method to speed up genome evolution of baker's yeast

Study establishes the importance of haploid cells

Study establishes the importance of haploid cells

Study reveals new protective mechanism for tumor cells in breast cancer

Study reveals new protective mechanism for tumor cells in breast cancer

Tau mutations may serve as novel risk factor for cancer

Tau mutations may serve as novel risk factor for cancer

Mapping the Genes Responsible for Pluripotency

Mapping the Genes Responsible for Pluripotency

CRISPR-Cas9-based strategy allows researchers to precisely alter hundreds of different genes

CRISPR-Cas9-based strategy allows researchers to precisely alter hundreds of different genes

Scientists disrupt two enzymes to shrink cancer cells

Scientists disrupt two enzymes to shrink cancer cells

Researchers harness the precision of CRISPR to knock out single genes in yeast

Researchers harness the precision of CRISPR to knock out single genes in yeast

Telomerase discovery paves way for drugs to combat aging and cancer

Telomerase discovery paves way for drugs to combat aging and cancer

Zika virus can be used for treating aggressive human central nervous system tumors, shows study

Zika virus can be used for treating aggressive human central nervous system tumors, shows study

Researchers target telomerase for killing NRAS-mutant melanoma cells

Researchers target telomerase for killing NRAS-mutant melanoma cells

Studies provide advanced knowledge about renal cancer

Studies provide advanced knowledge about renal cancer

Role of extrachromosomal pieces of DNA in cancer development and treatment resistance

Role of extrachromosomal pieces of DNA in cancer development and treatment resistance

Scientists identify gene responsible for evolution of recombination rates

Scientists identify gene responsible for evolution of recombination rates