Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
First randomized clinical trial compares targeted therapies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

First randomized clinical trial compares targeted therapies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

3D structure of DNA is 'rewired' in hormone-resistant ER+ breast cancers

3D structure of DNA is 'rewired' in hormone-resistant ER+ breast cancers

Princeton researchers uncover vital role played by a protein elevated in many cancers

Princeton researchers uncover vital role played by a protein elevated in many cancers

Study sheds new light on impact of common plasticizer on human reproductive health

Study sheds new light on impact of common plasticizer on human reproductive health

Common genetic defect in prostate cancer associated with worse prognosis

Common genetic defect in prostate cancer associated with worse prognosis

Dog study suggests that AAV in gene therapy could induce cancer

Dog study suggests that AAV in gene therapy could induce cancer

Drug trial seeking treatment option for hyperphagia in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome

Drug trial seeking treatment option for hyperphagia in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome

Inserting end-modified DNA fragments with CRISPR-Cas9 yields highest efficiency

Inserting end-modified DNA fragments with CRISPR-Cas9 yields highest efficiency

New, faster and cheaper method to uncover genetic variants in single cells

New, faster and cheaper method to uncover genetic variants in single cells

Researchers develop powerful computer algorithm for large-scale genomic analysis

Researchers develop powerful computer algorithm for large-scale genomic analysis

Extrachromosomal circular DNA can contribute to cancer development in children

Extrachromosomal circular DNA can contribute to cancer development in children

Tackling antibiotic resistance head-on with CRISPR

Tackling antibiotic resistance head-on with CRISPR

New gene technology shows 100-fold efficiency in targeting antibiotic-resistant bacteria

New gene technology shows 100-fold efficiency in targeting antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Precision epigenome editing can repair genetic syndrome of intellectual disability

Precision epigenome editing can repair genetic syndrome of intellectual disability

UCLA scientists discover reason for higher rates of autoimmune disease in women than men

UCLA scientists discover reason for higher rates of autoimmune disease in women than men

Epigenome editing could repair genetic brain disorder

Epigenome editing could repair genetic brain disorder

Genetic alteration increases risk of Autism and Tourette's impacts on the brain

Genetic alteration increases risk of Autism and Tourette's impacts on the brain

Combination therapy is safe and effective for older patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Combination therapy is safe and effective for older patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Kanazawa University researchers describe genetic typing of Pseudomonas putida

Kanazawa University researchers describe genetic typing of Pseudomonas putida

New discovery on chromosomal function may shed light on human health and disease

New discovery on chromosomal function may shed light on human health and disease