Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Down syndrome may hold important clues to onset of Alzheimer's disease

Down syndrome may hold important clues to onset of Alzheimer's disease

Researchers sequence two selfish genes in the fungus Neurospora intermedia

Researchers sequence two selfish genes in the fungus Neurospora intermedia

Common gene variants linked to migraine risk in African-American children

Common gene variants linked to migraine risk in African-American children

Genetic link to erectile dysfunction discovered

Genetic link to erectile dysfunction discovered

Study highlights opposite effects of gene following different types of environmental events

Study highlights opposite effects of gene following different types of environmental events

Research reveals how critical oocyte quality control process works

Research reveals how critical oocyte quality control process works

DFG establishes nine new Research Units

DFG establishes nine new Research Units

New research suggests power of zebrafish as tool for cancer drug discovery

New research suggests power of zebrafish as tool for cancer drug discovery

First U.S. patient treated with innovative gene therapy at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute

First U.S. patient treated with innovative gene therapy at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute

New method could help researchers find structural variations within cancer cell DNA

New method could help researchers find structural variations within cancer cell DNA

New framework combines three existing methods to find cancer cell mutations

New framework combines three existing methods to find cancer cell mutations

Family genetic background essential for understanding autism progression

Family genetic background essential for understanding autism progression

Researchers describe novel mechanism that links epigenetic change to translational control

Researchers describe novel mechanism that links epigenetic change to translational control

Study links spinal muscular atrophy disease expression with haplotypes

Study links spinal muscular atrophy disease expression with haplotypes

Short telomeres could be independent risk factor for age-related functional decline

Short telomeres could be independent risk factor for age-related functional decline

Breakthrough study sheds light on mechanism underlying Warsaw Breakage Syndrome

Breakthrough study sheds light on mechanism underlying Warsaw Breakage Syndrome

Novel method using big data tools shows promising routes for research

Novel method using big data tools shows promising routes for research

Subcutaneous injection of new protein helps treat hemophilia more effectively

Subcutaneous injection of new protein helps treat hemophilia more effectively

Muscle dystrophy treatment in dogs with Crispr gene editing

Muscle dystrophy treatment in dogs with Crispr gene editing

FDA accepts Bristol-Myers Squibb’s application for Sprycel for treating pediatric leukemia

FDA accepts Bristol-Myers Squibb’s application for Sprycel for treating pediatric leukemia