Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Researchers reveal molecular cause for severe multi-organ disorder

Researchers reveal molecular cause for severe multi-organ disorder

BU professor awarded NIH grant to study Down syndrome

BU professor awarded NIH grant to study Down syndrome

Exciting study shows how centrioles center the process of cell division

Exciting study shows how centrioles center the process of cell division

Research reveals genetic cause of deadly digestive disease in children

Research reveals genetic cause of deadly digestive disease in children

Researchers pinpoint treatment target for rare liver cancer in adolescents, young adults

Researchers pinpoint treatment target for rare liver cancer in adolescents, young adults

Targeted treatment offers symptom relief for patients with psychosis

Targeted treatment offers symptom relief for patients with psychosis

New study could change our understanding of how stem cells differentiate

New study could change our understanding of how stem cells differentiate

New mutation discovered in the leptin gene

New mutation discovered in the leptin gene

New genetic marker linked to higher risk of premenopausal breast cancer

New genetic marker linked to higher risk of premenopausal breast cancer

Study links high number of copies of chromosomal region to chemotherapeutic drug resistance

Study links high number of copies of chromosomal region to chemotherapeutic drug resistance

Study uncovers potential modifier genes in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Study uncovers potential modifier genes in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Research opens up new avenues for understanding the causes of schizophrenia

Research opens up new avenues for understanding the causes of schizophrenia

Researchers find salmonella resistant to antibiotics of last resort in the U.S.

Researchers find salmonella resistant to antibiotics of last resort in the U.S.

Researchers identify new sarcoma familial risk gene

Researchers identify new sarcoma familial risk gene

Researchers identify genetic factor linked to development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Researchers identify genetic factor linked to development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Rettsyndrome.org funds research that will benefit boys and girls with MECP2-related disorders

Rettsyndrome.org funds research that will benefit boys and girls with MECP2-related disorders

Research sheds new light on the function of frequently mutated cancer protein

Research sheds new light on the function of frequently mutated cancer protein

Novel program that provides comprehensive care for Turner syndrome earns national recognition

Novel program that provides comprehensive care for Turner syndrome earns national recognition

Rutgers-led study pinpoints key gene linked to impaired memory in Down syndrome

Rutgers-led study pinpoints key gene linked to impaired memory in Down syndrome

Children's Tumor Foundation establishes significant research initiative to combat NF2

Children's Tumor Foundation establishes significant research initiative to combat NF2