Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. Over the next few months, the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SARS or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus - the SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) - which can be life-threatening.
A new study has been published on the bioRxiv* preprint server, which has identified and characterized two RBD-targeting neutralizing nanobodies, namely, DL4 and DL28.
A new study has been published on the bioRxiv* preprint server, which has used MS to identify T cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 conserved protein, i.e., the membrane glycol protein (MGP) and the non-structure protein-13 (NSP13).
A new study characterizes the functional humoral immunity post-COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccination.
Researchers in Canada have reported the discovery of a multi-antibody cocktail that synergistically protected against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an animal model of acute infection.
A nationwide case-control study conducted in France has assessed the efficacy of mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines against original severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P1.
A recent study conducted at the University of Texas Science Center, Houston, in the USA, has revealed that upon infection, SARS-CoV-2 alters the host chromatin architecture to suppress antiviral interferon-responsive genes and augment inflammatory genes. The study is currently available on the bioRxiv* preprint server.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has baffled researchers with its propensity to cause symptoms of largely unpredictable severity in the affected individuals. An exciting new study reports on the potential predictive value of platelet size in this situation. COVID-19 patients with severe disease often develop clots in vital organs, which leads to further complications. It is known that platelet size is a good indicator of activation.
A new study, recently released as a preprint on the medRxiv* server, reports the intriguing finding that the cross-neutralizing antibodies elicited by human seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs) show varying ability to prevent binding between the SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen and its cognate receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
Israel was among the leading proponents of COVID-19 vaccination as the way out of the current worldwide restrictions on social and economic interactions and activity. A new study, recently released as a preprint on the medRxiv* server, reports on the effects of the large-scale vaccination campaigns carried out in this country, relating to successful control of SARS-CoV-2 spread within households.
The study, published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, also showed emerging mutations L452R and Y453F in the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding motif evade (HLA) A24-restricted cellular immunity. Meanwhile, the L452R enhances spike stability, viral fusogenicity, and viral infectivity. Hence, the findings suggest that HLA-restricted cellular immunity potentially affects the evolution of viral phenotypes.
The study, published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition, identified many small molecules that bind to certain parts of the SARS-CoV-2 genome that are less likely altered by mutations using dedicated substance libraries. The scientists derived key functional units and groups in ligands for effective and safe targeting of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
The ongoing coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has claimed more than 4.1 million lives worldwide. This pandemic is caused by a novel single-stranded RNA virus, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that was first reported in 2019 in Wuhan, China. The rapid spread of this virus is attributed to its high infectiousness and its ability to escape and counteract host immune responses, e.g., autophagy.
Some of these variants, known as variants of concern (VoC), have a much higher rate of transmission and increased mortality than the original SARS-CoV-2 strain. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the efficacy of the available vaccines against the circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains. In addition, tracking the continuously evolving genetic variants is also vital to prevent future outbreaks.
Researchers in The Netherlands have warned that domestic cats may play a role in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) – the agent that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Researchers in the United States have conducted a study showing that while variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can compromise the effectiveness of single therapeutic antibodies at preventing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many combination antibody products remain potent against the variants.
A study in Norway has recently highlighted a significant association between gut microbiota alteration and persistent respiratory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
In a new paper recently uploaded to the preprint server bioRxiv*, two clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2 are monitored by whole genome sequencing as they are passaged through several generations of Vero cells or human-derived primary nasal epithelial cells (PNEC), allowing direct observation of the occurrence of virus enhancing mutations and the way in which host cell factors shape virus evolution.
A recent study, released as a preprint on the medRxiv* server, examines the correlation of these symptoms with the patient’s socioeconomic status (SES) and perception of social discrimination, along with other social factors. The researchers found that the first two factors are associated strongly with long-term symptoms of COVID-19.
A new paper, available on the medRxiv* preprint server, presents lessons learned from the implementation of three adult vaccine programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South America.
A new preprint available on the medRxiv* server reports the utility of the COVIDcast API, a database of all COVID-19 indicators that are constantly being updated, dating from April 2020.