Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. Over the next few months, the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SARS or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus - the SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) - which can be life-threatening.
An important phase of the viral protein translation relies on the mitochondrial translation machinery. Towards this goal, the molecular mechanism involved in the SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells is studied by Zhenguo Cheng et al.
The cellular tropism of the SARS-CoV-2 virus affects several aspects of infection, such as the spread of the virus within and between hosts, tissue pathology, immune control mechanisms, and the response to treatment with promising antiviral drugs.
These updates focus on the prevention of the spread of the infection during travel. Since the onset of the pandemic, international and intra-state travel has been restricted across many nations.
Didac Martí et al., from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, in a recent bioRxiv preprint research paper, explore the effect of the temperature on the molecular structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. The study specifically focuses on the spike glycoprotein's molecular structural integrity at different temperatures (within 25 ºC and 100 ºC) using atomistic computer simulations.
Researchers from the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health demonstrate the ability to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 3D tissue samples in ferrets. This will allow the detection of infection patterns in tissues and their interrelations.
Researchers in the United States have shown that an engineered soluble decoy receptor tightly binds the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated viruses. This could potentially provide protection against zoonotic betacoronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) – the agent responsible for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Researchers from National Taiwan University have presented a multi-omics view of how mutations in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) affect infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and progression of coronaviruses disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A highly effective drug therapy is urgently required to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The authors of this article have developed a molecular docking based webserver, namely D3Targets-2019-nCoV, with two functions, one is for predicting drug targets for drugs or active compounds observed from clinic or in vitro/in vivo studies, the other is for identifying lead compounds against potential drug targets via docking.
Most testing is driven by fever, persistent cough of recent onset, and abnormalities in smell. Such symptoms are considered indicative of continuing SARS-CoV-2 infection, requiring quarantine of all such individuals until they test negative for the virus. This approach is justifiable in adults since fever and cough from other causes are rare in healthy adults.
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers have noted that women are generally less severely affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This has led to the exploration into estrogen and androgens' role in the hyperinflammatory clinical phenotypes of COVID-19. A recent study published on the preprint server bioRxiv shows that drugs targeting androgens and TMPRSS2 inhibitors may potentially combat the pandemic.
However, in other research, white blood cells' exact roles and subtypes in severe COVID-19 are still unclear. The team writes, "It is unknown if blood cell counts before infection are associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19." They explained that the numbers of these cell types could be influenced by several factors such as age, gender, disease status, and medications.
Recently, a team of researchers from the University of California San Diego and The Scripps Research Institute, CA, USA, showed that an integrated stem cell-based disease modeling and computational approach is crucial for simulating the host immune response in fatal COVID-19 patients.
Recently, researchers reported a study in which they analyzed the structure and dynamics of the spike protein using multiple molecular dynamic simulations. Their study is published on the preprint server bioRxiv.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to intensive scientific efforts to bring about an effective vaccine for global distribution. Many different vaccine design approaches are underway. A recent study published in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases in October 2020 reports a potentially successful inactivated virus vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Now, a new study presented on the preprint server bioRxiv in October 2020 describes the efficient design of an mRNA vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), based on the use of the viral receptor-binding domain (RBD) mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP).
A recent study published on the preprint server bioRxiv* in October 2020 shows that the design of a vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) must consider the prior history of exposure to coronaviruses since these affect the antibody response to the virus.
Vinicius Novaes Rocha, a researcher at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora in Brazil, provides an insight into the role of the renin-angiotensin on the pathophysiology of COVID-19, paving the way for developing new treatment methods in the journal Medical Hypotheses.
Researchers at the University of Warwick in the UK have conducted a modeling study showing that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could readily spread among students in the university setting if non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are not properly adhered to.
Researchers at Columbia University in New York have conducted a study showing that patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require intubation and mechanical ventilation due to respiratory distress may benefit from treatment with the hormone melatonin.
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses with little prospect of immediate relief, a recent study by Johns Hopkins University researchers published on the preprint server medRxiv* in October 2020 discusses the association of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) autoantibodies against the host receptor that binds severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with severe disease via vascular endothelial damage. This could help develop better therapies and prognostic criteria.