Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. Over the next few months, the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SARS or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus - the SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) - which can be life-threatening.
The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by a single-stranded RNA virus, thought to have jumped across species barriers to infect humans, has spread rapidly across the globe infecting over 10 million individuals. The virus, now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the causative agent of COVID-19 disease. COVID-19 disease is a respiratory illness where symptoms can range from very mild to severe and include fever, coughing, a sore throat, and shortness of breath.
The most fatal form of COVID-19 disease is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), caused by direct viral injury as well as indirect noxious effects caused by cytotoxic chemicals and inflammatory processes. A new study published on the preprint server bioRxiv* in June 2020 shows that this is partly due to the rapid onset of inflammation caused by the infection of type 2 alveolar cells with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
A new study published on the preprint server bioRxiv in June 2020 shows that a candidate spike protein vaccine can induce neutralizing antibodies, antiviral T cell responses, and protection against infection.
Previous studies have shown that many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases were tied to asymptomatic carriers or those who do not manifest symptoms of the viral infection. Now, a new study reveals that in the first Italian town hit by the virus, as much as 40 percent of the population had no symptoms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
Now, a team of researchers at the Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden has found that the number of people immune to COVID-10 may be higher than previously thought, and that antibody testing may no longer be the appropriate tool to trace it.
A team of scientists at the University of California San Francisco has found out how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) invades proteins in the cells that serve as master regulators of key cellular processes.
A new study shows how wearing masks can prevent the spread of droplet borne infections and is an excellent preventive measure to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study titled, "Visualizing the effectiveness of face masks in obstructing respiratory jets," is published in the latest issue of the journal Physics of Fluids.
A research group from the University of California Santa Barbara recently demonstrated a cost-effective, simple, and much less toxic method to isolate host and pathogen nucleic acids and proteins in order to streamline the detection of DNA and RNA viruses – including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Researchers at the Karolinska University Hospital and University Hospital of Wales report that people who have recovered from asymptomatic or mild cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have long-term T-cell immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Researchers in the U.S. have shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may alter key protein structures on red blood cells and compromise the transport and delivery of oxygen in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Now, a new study by researchers at the University of California San Francisco and published on the preprint server bioRxiv* in June 2020 shows the effect of phosphorylation on the state and function of the N protein.
The finding, published on the preprint server medRxiv in June 2020, shows that it has been causing infection in Brazil long before the first case was reported in the Americas, North and South, in January 2020, and certainly before the first case in this Brazilian region.
As many people are resorting to face coverings improvised from common fabrics, researchers from the University of Cincinnati looked to determine what fabrics were the most effective. The team examined the hydrophobicity of fabrics (silk, cotton, polyester), as measured by their resistance to the penetration of small and aerosolized water droplets, an important transmission avenue for the virus causing COVID-19.
Their study titled, “Could there be a link between oral hygiene and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections?” was published in the latest issue of the journal British Dental Journal.
The race to develop an effective vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is on, with many vaccine candidates entering the human trial phase. When a vaccine is developed and introduced into the population at scale, it triggers herd immunity, with many people immune to the infectious disease.
A new study by researchers from the UK and Germany and published on the preprint server bioRxiv in June 2020 reports the results of a detailed study of the S protein on the intact virus, using cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM) and tomography. This could help understand the conformation of the S protein on the virion and how it interacts with neutralizing antibodies.
Staff who shared a household with an infected person were at the greatest risk of infection, and those working in COVID-19-facing areas were also at an increased risk. Other groups that were identified as a high risk included Black and Asian individuals, porters, and cleaners.
In a recent bioRxiv paper, researchers from Norway and the US demonstrate the presence of a highly conserved, mobile genetic element (thus far with unknown function) in genomes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and a large number of insects – opening the door for hitherto unexplored treatment opportunities.
Researchers at Montpellier University Hospital have discovered that an interferon-inducible receptor expressed on monocytes could be a useful biomarker for the rapid triaging of patients suspected to have severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
A team of researchers from the National University of Singapore has invented a foldable tent-like device that serves as a physical shield to reduce the risk of exposure to pathogens for healthcare workers performing droplet and aerosol-generating procedures on COVID-19 patients.