Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. Over the next few months, the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SARS or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus - the SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) - which can be life-threatening.
A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that the vast majority of the viral load in a community at any given point is present in a very small minority of the infected population, underlining the vast differences in viral loads between individuals.
Earlier, herpes simplex virus (HSV), influenza virus A, measles virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and mumps virus have all been associated with after-effects of the virus that includes Parkinson's disease (PD). This list may now include SARS-CoV-2.
In a recent bioRxiv* preprint research paper, M. Gordon Joyce et al. designed engineered nanoparticle immunogens that recapitulate the structural and antigenic properties of prefusion Spike (S), S1 and receptor-binding domain (RBD). They demonstrated that these immunogens induced robust S-binding, ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme)-inhibition, and authentic and pseudovirus neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in mice.
Recent research published on the medRxiv* server has developed a portable, magnetofluidic cartridge platform, for automated PCR testing in <30 min, for rapid multiplexed screening of pathogens. A multidisciplinary team of researchers at Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine developed these cartridges for multiplexed detection of SARS-CoV-2 with distinctive variant mutations or with Influenza A and B.
The study, published in the journal Nature, reveals a multi-pronged strategy that the virus employs to ensure its quick and efficient replication while evading the immune system. The study elucidated how the virus can quickly, in a matter of hours, take over the cell's protein-making machinery and parallelly neutralize the cell's antiviral signaling, thus delaying and muddling the immune response.
Researchers in the United States and Canada have conducted a study showing that the South African variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) – the agent that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – is unlikely to become the dominant strain in the US.
An international team of researchers has warned that individuals with acute malaria infection generate high levels of antibodies that cross-react with the viral spike protein of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A team of scientists from Japan has recently investigated the neutralizing potency of convalescent sera against currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants with multiple spike mutations.
A recent report on the medRxiv* preprint server suggests that a single dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine could elicit higher titers of neutralizing antibodies, effectively acting as a booster dose, in people who have already been infected by the SARS-CoV-2.
A new study, released as a preprint on the bioRxiv* server, focuses on the lipid molecule called phosphatidic acid (PA), showing its crucial role in the replication of this virus, and thus its potential as a target for therapeutic intervention.
The importance of computational modeling in the prediction of the course of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as well as evaluating multiple potential drug leads, has never been more clear. Now, a new study describes a set of designer vaccine antigens that may improve vaccine stability as well as enhance the neutralizing antibody response.
In a paper published on the bioRxiv* preprint server, researchers report new monoclonal antibodies that target the S2 subunit and that have broad neutralization activity against several betacoronaviruses.
India faces a global health crisis as the number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections reaches over 23.7 million. As India's health system buckles with increased admissions and a lack of resources, another health threat has emerged.
Researchers in the UK have presented a multi-omics integrated blood atlas that delineates the host immune response in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) of varying severity, providing a unique reference resource for the interpretation of datasets generated from interventional trials.
Researchers in the UK have provided evidence that Pfizer-BioNTech’s coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine induces effective immune responses in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms.
A team of scientists recently conducted a study to examine whether natural infection-induced or vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies are capable of eliminating the risk of recently emerged Indian variant (B.1.617.1) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
In a new study published in The Lancet, a team of researchers examined prescription drug and healthcare use after SARS-CoV-2 infection in those who did not require hospital admission.
In a recent research study, Florian Poydenot et al. performed a quantitative assessment of indoor and outdoor transmission risk; and how to reduce the contributions of public spaces to the propagation of SARS-CoV-2. The study is published on the medRxiv, a preprint server for health sciences.
New research published in BMJ confirmed evidence of blood clotting finding a small risk after receiving one Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine.
Viruses mutate to survive. But not all mutations are beneficial to the virus. On the other hand, some mutations such as N501Y and E484K on the spike protein propelled specific severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants to ‘variant of concern’ status, due to their ability to increase transmission and weaken the response of neutralizing antibodies.