Angiogenesis Types

Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels. Angiogenesis may take place in two ways - endothelial sprouting or non-sprouting (intussusceptive).

Endothelial sprouting or sprouting angiogenesis

Sprouting angiogenesis is the basic mechanism seen in the growth of new blood vessels. It was the first identified form of angiogenesis. It occurs in several well-characterized stages.

There are sequential steps that are finely regulated by chemical mediators in the body. Significant role is played by factors such as Notch, Wnt, VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors).

Some of the steps in sprouting endothelial factors include:-

  • The first step is appearance of the angiogenic growth factors. These in turn activate receptors present on endothelial cells. The endothelial cells line the blood vessels of existing cells.
  • Next these activated endothelial cells begin to release enzymes like proteases. These proteases can break down proteins and cells of the basement membrane. This creates opening in the existing blood vessel that allows the outpouring of the activated endothelial cells from the existing parent blood vessel.
  • Once these endothelial cells have escaped, they multiply into the surrounding matrix and form solid sprouts. These help connect the neighbouring blood vessels.
  • The sprouts extend towards the source of the angiogenic stimulus. The new endothelial cells use adhesion molecules like integrins that help them bind to each other to form chains. These sprouts then form loops to become tubular blood vessels.
  • Sprouting may occur rapidly at a rate of several millimeters per day.

Intussusceptive angiogenesis or splitting angiogenesis

This type of angiogenesis basically involves splitting or breaking down of a larger blood vessel into smaller ones. The blood vessel or capillary wall enters the existing lumen of the blood vessel to break it up into two or more smaller blood vessels.

Intussusception allows a large increase in the number of capillaries without a corresponding increase in the number of endothelial cells. This is important in development of the embryo.

This occurs in several phases that include:-

  • The capillary walls facing each other come in contact at a point.
  • Then the endothelial cell junctions are altered so that a bilayer of blood vessel walls is formed.
  • This bilayer is then perforated by angiogenesis factor activated endothelial cells. This allows growth factors and cells to penetrate into the lumen.
  • A core is formed at the point of contact between the walls. This is filled up with pericytes and myofibroblasts.
  • The new cells begin forming the collagen fibres in the core and help provide an extracellular matrix for growth of the vessel lumen.
  • The core then splits the existing blood vessel lumen into two.

Further Reading

Last Updated: Jun 13, 2023

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.


Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Mandal, Ananya. (2023, June 13). Angiogenesis Types. News-Medical. Retrieved on July 20, 2024 from

  • MLA

    Mandal, Ananya. "Angiogenesis Types". News-Medical. 20 July 2024. <>.

  • Chicago

    Mandal, Ananya. "Angiogenesis Types". News-Medical. (accessed July 20, 2024).

  • Harvard

    Mandal, Ananya. 2023. Angiogenesis Types. News-Medical, viewed 20 July 2024,


The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
Post a new comment

While we only use edited and approved content for Azthena answers, it may on occasions provide incorrect responses. Please confirm any data provided with the related suppliers or authors. We do not provide medical advice, if you search for medical information you must always consult a medical professional before acting on any information provided.

Your questions, but not your email details will be shared with OpenAI and retained for 30 days in accordance with their privacy principles.

Please do not ask questions that use sensitive or confidential information.

Read the full Terms & Conditions.

You might also like...
Exploring the impact of soy isoflavones in prostate cancer therapy