An ingrown toenail can affect people of any age, including both men and women. They usually occur when a sharp corner or a toenail grows into the surrounding skin, which can be caused by various factors such as:
- Incorrect cutting
- Irregular shape
- Ill-fitting footwear
- Foot hygiene
- Toenail thickening
In some cases, there is no definite cause for the ingrown toenail, which is known as idiopathic. The most common causes of the condition are described in more detail below.
Cutting the toenail incorrectly can increase the risk that the nail will grow into the skin and become ingrown. When cutting toenails, it is best to cut straight across rather curving around the sides, as it helps to prevent the nails from becoming lodged in the skin. Cutting the nails too short should also be avoided, and picking or tearing at the corners of the toenails can also cause it to become ingrown.
Irregular Nail Shape
Curved toenails are most likely to grow into the skin and cause problems. Some people naturally have irregular, curved toenails that grow downward towards the skin and are, therefore, more likely to get ingrown toenails.
Other people have particularly large toenails that are more likely to be injured and result in an ingrown toenail.
Whenever extra pressure is placed on the toe, pushing the nail into the surrounding skin, there is an increased risk of an ingrown toenail.
Some footwear that places excessive pressure on the big toe can press the toenail into the surrounding skin and cause an ingrown toenail. In particular, shoes that are high-heeled or too tight, narrow or flat for your feet are likely to cause problems. Correctly fitted footwear is essential during sporting activities that place pressure of the feet, as even shoes that are slightly too tight may lead to an ingrown toenail.
Poor foot hygiene can also contribute to causing ingrown toenails. Active people that are involved in sporting activities are prone to the condition due to increased risk of injury to the area and sweating. Teenagers are more likely to be affected by ingrown toenails, which is believed to be associated with the increased sweating of their feet.
For this reason, it is important to keep nails clean and examine them regularly for changes that could indicate the beginning of an ingrown nail so that the appropriate action can be taken.
Thickening of the toenail can increase the likelihood that the nail will grow into the skin and become ingrown. This can occur as a result of a fungal infection of the nail or some medications such as isotretinoin.
Elderly people are at an increased risk of getting ingrown toenails, which is likely to be a result of the naturally thickening of the toenails with age. Poor eyesight may also be a contributing factor, as it can increase difficulty to properly trim nails and recognize early signs of problems.