Using Redox Titration for the Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide in Sanitizers

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a chemical compound with strong oxidizing capabilities, which acts against a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and spores1,2. It has been utilized in several formulations of bleaching agents, disinfectants and sanitizers.

The concentration of H2O2 differs according to the objective of the formulation1. While a concentration of 3% H2O2 is a potent disinfectant, up to 0.5% concentration of H2O2 is thought to be effective against surface viruses2.

The low concentration of H2O2 is included in formulations to help terminate bacterial spores that contaminate a solution3. For this application, H2O2 content is established with redox titration methods utilizing cerium (IV) sulfate as a titrant and DMi140-SC electrode.

Sample preparation and procedures

1. Titrant: Cerium sulfate, Ce(SO4)2, 0.1 mol/L

  • Precisely weigh out 40.43g Ce(SO4)2.4H2O into a 1000 mL glass beaker and introduce 500 mL deionized water.
  • Add 10 mL 98% H2SO4, stir the solution while heating it to ~50 °C. Wait until cerium sulfate is dissolved completely.
  • Decant the solution into a 1000 mL volumetric flask and fill to the mark with deionized water.
  • For titer determination, use application note M297 for reference.

2. 5% H2SO4 solution:

  • Gradually add around 25.50 mL of 98% H2SO4 into a 500 mL volumetric flask that contains approximately 150 mL of deionized water.
  • Using deionized water, cool and dilute the solution to the mark.

3. Standard / Sample titration:

  • Add 40 mL of 5% H2SO4 in the thermostatable titration beaker.
  • Using a thermostat,  the temperature of the solution in the beaker should be maintained between 5-10 oC.
  • Introduce 0.2 mL of disinfectant sample solution to the titration beaker using Rainin pipette (5 mL for sanitizer sample).
  • Using standardized Ce(SO4)2, 0.1 mol/L solution, titrate the solution.

Chemistry

H2O2 + 2Ce(SO4)2 → Ce2(SO4)3 + H2SO4 + O2

Solutions

  • Chemicals: 98% Sulfuric acid, H2SO4 Deionized water
  • Standard/sample: Standard: 1.5% Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), M = 34.02 g/mol, z=2 Sample: Disinfectant and sanitizer with 3% and 0.125% H2O2 content respectively.
  • Titrant: Cerium sulfate, Ce(SO4)2.4H2O, M=404.3 g/mol, z=1 c (Ce(SO4)2)= 0.1 mol/L

Instruments and accessories

  • Burette DV1020 20 mL (51107502)
  • DMi140-SC, platinum ring electrode (51109520)
  • DT1000 temperature sensor
  • LabXTM software
  • Manual Titration Kit with titration stand, compact stirrer and accessories (51109220)
  • Rainin Pipette and Tips 1 mL, 5 mL and 10 mL
  • Spatula
  • The method can be adapted on G10S (30267117) / G20S (30252669) titrators.
  • Thermostatable titration beaker, glass 100 mL (23517)
  • Thermostat (Lauda)
  • Titration Excellence T5 (30252672) T7 (30252675) or T9 (30252676)
  • XPR205 Analytical Balance (30355411)

Results

1.  Titer determination of Cerium sulfate
     c(Ce(SO4)2) = 0.1 mol/L
     Titer value obtained = 1.00505
     s = 0.00172
     srel = 0.171%
     n = 6

2. Sample results

(a) Standard 1.5% H2O2 solution:

Table 1. Source: Mettler Toledo - Titration

R1:Content, %
1 1.575
2 1.592
3 1.603
4 1.593
5 1.603
6 1.601
Mean
s
srel
1.594
0.011
0.673

(b) Sample

Table 2. Source: Mettler Toledo - Titration

Disinfectant
R1:Content, %

Sanitizer
R1: Content, %

1 2.971 0.123
2 2.884 0.123
3 2.972 0.122
4 2.976 0.123
5 2.997 0.122
6 3.014 0.122
Mean
s
srel
2.969
0.045
1.513
0.122
0.001
0.447

The H2O2 content in disinfectant and sanitizer samples is established and values acquired by redox titration with cerium sulfate are in sound agreement with the content of H2O2 anticipated in both samples. The repeatability achieved for standard as well as sample is excellent in terms of comparable standard deviation, i.e., srel.

Remarks

  • This application note has been prepared for the sample mentioned. Optimizing the method parameters as per sample may be necessary for the best results.
  • The temperature of the titrating solution should be kept below 10 oC.
  • It is essential to first optimize the sample size to ensure the titrant volume consumption is between 20 to 80% of the burette volume.
  • When exposed to other peroxygens, this method of titration using Ce(SO4)2 is selective towards the determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In the determination of H2O2 utilizing potassium permanganate (KMnO4), KMnO4 reacts with other peroxygens or substances that limit KMnO4 in acidic conditions and initiates higher results.
  • The method can be adapted on G10S / G20S titrators

Waste disposal and safety measures

Precipitate cerium with NaOH, filter, and handle as special waste.

References and Further Reading

  1. The Use of Hydrogen Peroxide for Disinfection and Sterilization Applications, Gerald McDonnell, Peroxides (2014)
  2. Chemical Disinfectants, Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities (2008). https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/disinfection-methods/chemical.html
  3. WHO-recommended handrub formulations. https://www.who.int/gpsc/information_centre/handrub-formulations/en/

Further information

http://www.mt.com/ch/en/home/products/Laborat ory_Analytics_Browse/Product_Family_Browse_titr ators_main/Titration_Excellence.html?cmp=als_Tit ration-Excellence

Measured values

Table 3. Source: Mettler Toledo - Titration

Time [s] V [mL] E [mV] dV [mL] dE [mV] dE/dV [mV/mL] Temp[oC] EQP
0 0.000 575.8 NaN Nan 8.0
7 1.500 582.2 1.500 6.4 8.2
48 1.600 581.6 0.100 -0.6 7.8
58 1.700 582.0 0.100 0.4 7.7
68 1.800 582.5 0.100 0.5 7.7
78 1.900 583.2 0.100 0.7 5.26 7.6
88 2.000 583.8 0.100 0.6 7.51 7.5
98 2.100 584.5 0.100 0.7 7.52 7.5
108 2.200 585.3 0.100 0.8 8.20 7.4
118 2.300 586.3 0.100 1.0 11.60 7.4
128 2.400 587.5 0.100 1.2 14.26 7.4
138 2.500 588.7 0.100 1.2 16.30 7.4
148 2.600 590.8 0.100 2.1 17.84 7.3
158 2.700 593.8 0.100 3.0 17.68 7.3
168 2.800 594.6 0.100 0.8 18.18 7.3
179 2.900 597.4 0.100 2.8 -0.30 7.3
189 3.000 600.8 0.100 3.4 -29.08 7.3
199 3.100 605.7 0.100 4.9 105.05 7.2
209 3.200 615.9 0.100 10.2 356.34 7.2
219 3.300 633.4 0.100 17.5 625.39 7.2
229 3.400 702.4 0.100 69.0 822.66 7.2
3.476860 825.1 883.31 EQP
239 3.500 862.1 0.100 159.7 883.31 7.2
249 3.600 939.9 0.100 77.8 788.68 7.2
259 3.700 987.8 0.100 47.9 572.67 7.2
269 3.800 1020.6 0.100 32.8 318.42 7.1
279 3.900 1043.6 0.100 23.0 154.09 7.1
289 4.000 1060.4 0.100 16.8 7.1
299 4.100 1072.9 0.100 12.5 7.1
310 4.200 1082.7 0.100 9.8 7.1
320 4.300 1090.6 0.100 7.9 7.1
330 4.400 1097.1 0.100 6.5 7.1

Table 4. Source: Mettler Toledo - Titration

Time [s] V [mL] E [mV] dV [mL] dE [mV] dE/dV [mV/mL] Temp [oC] EQP
0 0.000 541.4 8.6
7 1.000 555.3 1.000 13.9 8.6
48 1.100 554.8 0.100 -0.5 8.0
58 1.200 556.5 0.100 1.7 7.9
68 1.300 557.7 0.100 1.2 7.8
78 1.400 558.5 0.100 0.8 6.83 7.7
88 1.500 558.9 0.100 0.4 5.90 7.7
98 1.600 559.4 0.100 0.5 2.96 7.6
108 1.700 559.6 0.100 0.2 2.22 7.6
118 1.800 559.8 0.100 0.2 1.9 7.5
128 1.900 560.0 0.100 0.2 1.74 7.4
138 2.000 560.2 0.100 0.2 1.47 7.4
148 2.100 560.3 0.100 0.1 1.44 7.4
158 2.200 560.5 0.100 0.2 1.34 7.3
168 2.300 560.6 0.100 0.1 1.38 7.3
179 2.400 560.7 0.100 0.1 1.49 7.3
189 2.500 560.9 0.100 0.2 1.64 7.2
199 2.600 561.1 0.100 0.2 1.88 7.2
209 2.700 561.3 0.100 0.2 2.23 7.2
219 2.800 561.5 0.100 0.2 2.51 7.2
229 2.900 561.8 0.100 0.3 2.06 7.2
239 3.000 562.2 0.100 0.4 -4.78 7.1
249 3.100 562.6 0.100 0.4 -1.59 7.1
259 3.200 563.2 0.100 0.6 19.99 7.1
269 3.300 564.1 0.100 0.9 55.05 7.1
279 3.400 566.9 0.100 2.8 92.67 7.1
289 3.500 583.4 0.100 16.5 121.63 7.1
300 3.600 599.9 0.100 16.5 133.40 7.1
3.609792 601.1 134.28 EQP
310 3.700 612.3 0.100 12.4 125.50 7.1
320 3.800 621.9 0.100 9.6 102.43 7.1
330 3.900 630.0 0.100 8.1 76.92 7.1
340 4.000 637.0 0.100 7.0 66.49 7.1
350 4.100 643.6 0.100 6.6 7.1
360 4.200 649.9 0.100 6.3 7.1
370 4.300 656.1 0.100 6.2 7.1
380 4.400 662.2 0.100 6.1 7.1
390 4.500 668.4 0.100 6.2 7.1

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Last updated: Jan 21, 2021 at 6:02 AM

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