Subspecialties of Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is a specialization in medicine, but there are also several subspecialties of ophthalmology, which focus on certain diseases or parts of the eyes. This is not a complete list of all subspecialties in the field of ophthalmology, although it is a good overview of the possibilities for ophthalmologists who are looking to further specialize in a certain area.

Anterior Segment Surgery

This subspecialty focuses on the anterior segment of the eye, which includes the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens. Ophthalmologists who specialize in this area have advanced knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of these structures and are capable of performing complex surgical procedures.

Cataracts and Refractive Surgery

As most general ophthalmologists perform cataract surgery on a regular basis, this is not a subspecialization in the sense that the others are. However, it is a distinct field of ophthalmology and physicians may wish to expand their understanding of this area of eye health. Ophthalmologists with this subspecialization commonly perform refractive surgery, which aims to correct refractive errors in the eye.

Cornea and External Disease

This opthalmology subspecialty deals with the diseases of the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, and eyelids. Ophthalmologists specializing in this area may work with patients who have corneal dystrophies, inflammation, microbial infections, or a tumor of the conjunctiva or cornea. These specialists commonly perform  corneal refractive and corneal transplant surgeries.


This particular subspecialty focuses on treating glaucoma and disorders that increase intraocular pressure or damage the optic nerve to cause ophthalmic disorders. It includes medical as well as surgical management of patients with glaucoma and related conditions.


This subspecialty combines knowledge about neurological and ophthalmic conditions, such as damage to the optic nerve that disrupts visual ability. Ophthalmologists in this area usually work with non-surgical techniques, although eye and orbit surgery may sometimes be the most appropriate option.

Ocular Oncology

This subspecialty deals with medical as well as surgical care of patients with ocular cancer. Ophthalmologists working in this area may be responsible for the processing and explanation of pathology specimens of the eye to guide treatment decisions.

Ocular Oncology - Dr. Kapoor

Oculoplastics and Orbit Surgery

This subspecialty is focused on the ophthalmic plastic surgery techniques, such as orbital surgery, upper facial reconstructions, and cosmetic lid surgery. Ophthalmologists working in this area are usually trained to use chemotherapy, radiotherapy,  and chemosurgery when required in the management of orbital and ocular disease.

Ophthalmic Pathology

This subspecialty deals with both ophthalmology and pathology, which provides a unique blend of skills that are useful to examine tissue samples of the eye and adnexa and make an appropriate diagnosis.


This subspecialty is focused on the management of ocular conditions that affect children. This commonly includes strabismus or misalignment of the eyes, amblyopia, genetic abnormalities, and neoplastic disorders. Ophthalmologists working in this area may also work with ocular manifestations associated with underlying systemic disorders.

Uveitis and Immunology

This specialization is based on inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, or choroid of the eye due to immune-mediated ocular conditions. Ophthalmologists working in this area have specific knowledge about ocular immunomodulatory therapy. They also often work in collaboration with specialists of rheumatology or immunology.

Vitreo-Retinal Surgery

Also sometimes known as posterior segment or retinal ophthalmology, this subspecialty deals with medical as well as surgical management of retinal and vitreoretinal diseases. They may use laser therapy, vitrectomy, cryotherapy, and retinal detachment surgery to treat these conditions.

A History of Vitreoretinal Surgery


Further Reading

Last Updated: Dec 29, 2022

Yolanda Smith

Written by

Yolanda Smith

Yolanda graduated with a Bachelor of Pharmacy at the University of South Australia and has experience working in both Australia and Italy. She is passionate about how medicine, diet and lifestyle affect our health and enjoys helping people understand this. In her spare time she loves to explore the world and learn about new cultures and languages.


Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Smith, Yolanda. (2022, December 29). Subspecialties of Ophthalmology. News-Medical. Retrieved on February 24, 2024 from

  • MLA

    Smith, Yolanda. "Subspecialties of Ophthalmology". News-Medical. 24 February 2024. <>.

  • Chicago

    Smith, Yolanda. "Subspecialties of Ophthalmology". News-Medical. (accessed February 24, 2024).

  • Harvard

    Smith, Yolanda. 2022. Subspecialties of Ophthalmology. News-Medical, viewed 24 February 2024,


The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
Post a new comment
You might also like...
MACUSTAR extends Europe-wide clinical study on intermediate age-related macular degeneration