What is Hay Fever?

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Hay fever is a common allergic condition that affects around one fifth of the population at least once in their lifetime.

The symptoms of hay fever include:

  • Runny nose
  • Itchy, red eyes
  • Sneezing
  • Itchy throat, nose, ears and mouth
  • Cough
  • Headache
  • Earache
  • Fatigue

Many people who suffer from hay fever find their symptoms improve with age and around 50% say their symptoms get less severe after several years. Symptoms disappear altogether in around 10 to 20% of hay fever sufferers.


Hay fever is caused by an allergic reaction to pollen, the fine powder-like substance that flowers release as part of reproduction.  Proteins contained inside the pollen irritate the nose, eyes, throat and sinuses, causing them to become swollen and inflamed. People with hay fever can be allergic to various different types of pollen including tree pollen, released during spring; grass pollen, released as the spring turns to summer; or weed pollen, which may be released anytime between early spring though to late autumn.


There is currently no cure for hay fever, but some products are available that can help to relieve symptoms. Antihistamines can protect against allergic reactions and corticosteroids can be used to reduce swelling and inflammation. Examples of antihistamines include levocetirizine, azelastine, and desloratadine.

For persistent and severe hay fever, a physician may advise immunotherapy, which involves the patient being gradually exposed to increasing amounts of pollen, to build up their resistance to the allergic effects the substance can have.

Further Reading

Last Updated: Jun 12, 2023

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.


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The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
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