Mucopolysaccharidosis Treatments

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) represent a heterogeneous group of genetic lysosomal storage disorders caused by the deficiency of enzymes catalyzing the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, which were previously known as mucopolysaccharides. This leads to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the lysosomes of most cells, resulting in cell, tissue, and organ dysfunction.

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The first successful treatment for mucopolysaccharidoses was bone marrow transplantation, which was introduced for the therapy in 1980. Over the last decade, a panoply of different therapeutic approaches has either become available or is currently in development to address this disease.

Symptom-based treatments

Before the advent of therapies targeting deficient enzyme activity, the treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis was predominantly focused on the prevention and care of complications. This approach to treating mucopolysaccharidosis still represents a very important aspect in the management of these patients.

Due to a large number of comorbidities that need to be addressed, a team of specialists including, but not limited to orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, cardiologists, pneumologists, ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and physiotherapists are required when approaching these rare conditions.

Many complications of mucopolysaccharidoses require surgery, although its burden is often very high for patients with severe somatic involvement. These include common interventions such as hernia repair, orthopedic surgery for joint contractures and skeletal deformities, carpal tunnel release operation, corneal transplants, and adenotonsillectomy.

Due to the complexity and rarity of these disorders, as well as the high risk of anesthetic and surgical complications, individuals with this disease should be monitored and treated at a facility with expertise in treating patients with mucopolysaccharidoses.

Disease-specific treatments

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis in order to correct the enzyme deficiency. Although it is considered to be a high-risk procedure with high morbidity and mortality rates, various studies show that successful HSCT can change the natural history of the disease, increase life expectancy and improve many systemic abnormalities.

HSCT treatment consists of transplanting stem cells from the blood of a healthy donor into the body of the affected individual. If the procedure works, the donated cells begin to multiply and produce all the enzymes they would normally produce in the donor, including the one that the transplant recipient was lacking. HSCT should be done as early as possible, particularly before significant accumulations have developed in the brain.

Following the success of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for the treatment of Gaucher disease, which is another type of lysosomal storage disorder, the ERT method was also developed for mucopolysaccharidosis. The treatment involves regular infusions of a recombinant product that is similar to the deficient enzyme missing in the specific type of the disease.

ERT represents a life-long therapy, and each infusion takes from one to four hours, depending on the enzyme and the dose. Up to one-half of all patients can initially experience reactions such as flushing, headache, and fever. Potentially life-threatening anaphylaxis can also occur in some patients receiving ERT.

Mucopolysaccharidoses: Current Therapies Offer Hope, but More Effective Treatments Are Needed

Novel treatment approaches

Over the last decade, a new set of therapeutic measures have become available or are currently in development. These emerging treatment options include substrate inhibition therapy using small molecules which cross the blood-brain barrier, the use of chaperones, stop-codon read-through strategy, gene therapy, and the use of neural stem cells.

It is important to specify that all mucopolysaccharidoses are hard to treat and demand specific therapies with a broad range of supportive measures. An additional challenge is the high cost of these technology-intensive approaches, which needs to be addressed if the treatments are to become even more entrenched in the clinical routine.


Further Reading

Last Updated: May 22, 2021

Dr. Tomislav Meštrović

Written by

Dr. Tomislav Meštrović

Dr. Tomislav Meštrović is a medical doctor (MD) with a Ph.D. in biomedical and health sciences, specialist in the field of clinical microbiology, and an Assistant Professor at Croatia's youngest university - University North. In addition to his interest in clinical, research and lecturing activities, his immense passion for medical writing and scientific communication goes back to his student days. He enjoys contributing back to the community. In his spare time, Tomislav is a movie buff and an avid traveler.


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  1. Eliana Salazar Eliana Salazar Colombia says:

    Now these types of disease have been more recognized for healt professional pattients, hospitals. Investigations are higher but in my opinion there arent enough investigations that are related to physical therapy. will be of great importance to researches devote their efforts to show how physical therapy can help this pattients through experimental studies.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
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