Mosquito control using special bacteria infected mosquitoes approved by the EPA

The Environmental Protection Agency has now approved the use of special mosquitoes that have been infected with bacteria called Wolbachia for eradication of mosquitoes in 20 states and District of Columbia. This approach is known as the use of “biopesticide”. Now mosquitoes that spread viral illnesses like Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika etc. would be controlled effectively.

Image Credit: Winai Pantho / Shutterstock
Image Credit: Winai Pantho / Shutterstock

Australian scientist Scott O'Neill from the Monash University has been working for the last two decades nearly trying to make these Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes effective in vector control. O'Neill wanted to work on vectors that spread deadly incurable viral disease dengue. He said millions of people are infected yearly and of these thousands die each year. There is no cure and at present no vaccine is available to combat this infection. The Aedes variety of mosquitoes transmit this infection.

Wolbachia infection of the mosquitoes was one approach and the other was to genetically modify the mosquitoes so that they cannot transmit the infection. Genetic modification approach has not seen any success till date. However, it was seen that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes were unable to carry the dengue virus. The bacteria renders the mosquito incapable of carrying or transmitting the dengue virus and thus stops the transmission chain.

Last year O'Neill had worked on a small project and released some of his Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes within two small communities in northeastern Australia. O'Neill said that within a very short period of time, the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes could replace the wild mosquito population until nearly all mosquitoes had Wolbachia infection. This stopped the spread of dengue in the communities.

The biggest hurdle he said was to infect the mosquitoes with Wolbachia. The bacteria had to be introduced into the eggs of the mosquitoes that are miniscule and almost invisible to naked eye. From these eggs adult mosquitoes emerge that may be infected with the bacteria. The success rate of the infection is quite low he explained.

Last week on 3rd of November 2017, the EPA had registered and approved the biopesticide – ZAP Males® that are actually Wolbachia infected mosquitoes. These can reduce the population of several species of mosquitoes including Aedes albopictus, or Asian Tiger Mosquitoes. These can spread viral infections such as Zika. These mosquitoes are adult male mosquitoes that are infected with the ZAP strain of the Wolbachia bacterium. They can mate with females who lay eggs that do not survive. This kills the life cycle and stops the further propagation of these mosquitoes.

ZAP Males® at present would be sold by authorized seller MosquitoMate, Inc. for five years in the District of Columbia and 20 states. The states that are covered include “California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maine, Maryland, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia,” according to the statement. Before use the manufacturers need to register at the particular state where they are being used. The manufacturers plan to start their release and sale in Lexington. They would go on to Louisville, Kentucky, and Cincinnati, Ohio, from there. The initial sale begins at hotels, homes and golf courses they said.

David O’Brochta, an entomologist at the University of Maryland in Rockville called this an appealing option as it is a “non-chemical” option of dealing with the mosquitoes.

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Comments

  1. Rose Webster Rose Webster Canada says:

    To be fair, I do not doubt that Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus suppresses viruses. But here's the crucial point:

    What happens when trillions of Wolbachia-infected Aedes males die or are consumed? And what about the eggs and larvae that will ALSO contain it?

    Everything dies and is eventually "absorbed" by something else in nature. Wolbachia can survive (at least) a week in a dead host; ample time for other organisms and parasites to acquire (and spread) it.

    And earlier this year, I discovered that "up to 60 per cent of the Culex family do not lay eggs on the surface of water. Rather, they lay their eggs near boggy, swampy, watery areas, on leaves or just about anything that is just above or just near the water." Source: www.cbc.ca/.../mosquito-eggs-water-1.4069272

    So, when I viewed these WWF-Canada stats:

    - Grassland birds dropped 69 per cent
    - Aerial insectivores fell 51 per cent
    - Shorebird populations declined by 43 per cent
    Source: blog.wwf.ca/.../wildlife-species-loss-living-planet-canada

    And coupled that with this highly alarming statistic:

    -Sperm counts have declined by more than half for Western men
    Source: www.cbc.ca/.../...erica-europe-australia-1.4220661

    I thought: Wolbachia is infecting humans and mammals now and Culex are (in my mind) the most likely culprit. I also believe Wolbachia is working in tandem with Zika (a virus acting like a bacteriophage) hitching a ride to the gonads, heart, CNS, optic lobe and retina.

    Bottom line: We need to demand that vertebrates (including humans) be tested for Wolbachia because there ARE treatment options.

    If Wolbachia in Aedes is so safe, then WHY can't we test for it in vertebrate species that are suffering catastrophic breeding failures (including humans)?

    Latest petition update: www.change.org/.../22019854

  2. Rose Webster Rose Webster Canada says:

    If Wolbachia in Aedes is so safe, then WHY can't we test for it in vertebrate species that are suffering catastrophic breeding failures (including humans)?

    Latest petition update: www.change.org/.../22019854

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
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