Clinical Depression: Diagnosis, Causes & Treatment

Clinical depression refers to more than just a feeling of sadness. Sadness triggered by an upsetting or life changing event is normal and experienced by almost everyone at some point in their lives. However, this type of sadness is transient and usually lasts only a few days.

Clinical depression describes when this feeling persists for weeks or months. Depression is a clinical condition that, contrary to popular opinion, cannot simply be overcome with time and it needs to be treated. Depression has an underlying pathology which is thought to originate in the brain and involve a deficiency of neurotransmitters such as serotonin. A hereditary element to depression has also previously been shown.

Diagnosis and symptoms of depression

Depression manifests differently between individuals. Symptoms are wide ranging but some of the major ones that help confirm a depression diagnosis are:

  • A feeling of sadness, hopelessness and tearfulness that may last for weeks, months or years
  • A loss of interest in activities that were previously enjoyed and lack of motivation to fulfil usual daily activities
  • Symptoms of anxiety alongside the depression
  • Tiredness
  • Sleep disorder that may manifest as either excessive sleeping or inability to fall or stay asleep at night.
  • Change in eating habits that may involve either a loss of appetite or overeating with bouts of binge eating
  • Loss of sex drive or libido
  • Feeling vague pains and aches
  • Thinking about and planning suicide

Causes of depression

Life changing events such as job change, moving house, bereavement, financial difficulties and divorce are all triggers for sadness that may go on to become clinical depression. Depression is quite common and affects around 1% of the general population. Both genders are affected by the condition and people of any age may experience it.

Treatment of depression

Depression may be treated with a single or combined approach and examples include:

  • Antidepressants medications such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine, escitalopram and paroxetine
  • Talking therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy or counselling may be used either alone or in combination with antidepressant medication
  • Support groups can help prevent relapse and improve lifestyle to help ensure rehabilitation



Further Reading

Last Updated: Jul 18, 2023

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.


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  1. Helena Trujillo Helena Trujillo Spain says:

    Depression is one of the most debilitating disorders in the Spain. It is vital that we screen and treat depression in order to support workforce productivity and improve the quality of life for our citizens. Please include depression screening. Thank you. Psicoanalista Profesional

  2. deborah schwartzkopff deborah schwartzkopff United States says:

    ECT/Electroshock use has been on the rise last 5 years or so and not just used for depression nor as a last resort. No FDA testing ever done of devices used or the procedure itself. Increase risk for suicide following as many cannot find help for their repeated brain injuries after consenting to this. Lawsuits taking place in the US and England around these damages covered up. See site ectjustice to learn more. Please speak out on social media so others are made aware of the truth of this practice.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
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