Types of Dendritic Cells

NewsGuard 100/100 Score

Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells that play a key role in the immune system. Dendritic cells possess numerous long outgrowths called dendrites that give them a very large surface area of contact with their surroundings in the detection of pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. Dendritic cells have a very large contact surface area relative to their overall cell volume.

In primates, the dendritic cells are usually divided into two main groups: the myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and the plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs).

Also called conventional dendritic cells, mDCs are similar to monocytes or white blood cells and are further subdivided into the more abundant mDC-1 which is a major stimulator of T cells and the less common mDC-2 that helps fight infections caused by wounds. The mDCs secrete the cytokine interleukin-12 and they display the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR 2 and TLR 4.

The pDCs resemble plasma cells but share some features of mDCs. Previously known of as interferon-producing cells, these can secrete large amounts of interferon-alpha and they display TLR 7 and TLR 9.

To differentiate between the two types of dendritic cells, markers BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4 are used.

Another type of dendritic cell is the follicular dendritic cell or fDC. Unlike the myeloid and plasmacytoid forms, these dendritic cells are not of hematopoietic origin and do not express MHC class II. These fDCs are of mesenchymal origin but are located in lymphoid follicles and possess dendrites.

Dendritic cells cultured in the laboratory differ in several respects to those isolated form the body but are still used in research because they are more readily available.  These include the Mo-DCs or MDDCs that are matured from monocytes and the HP-DCs that have been derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells.

Further Reading

Last Updated: Jun 21, 2023

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.

Citations

Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Mandal, Ananya. (2023, June 21). Types of Dendritic Cells. News-Medical. Retrieved on May 28, 2024 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Types-of-Dendritic-Cells.aspx.

  • MLA

    Mandal, Ananya. "Types of Dendritic Cells". News-Medical. 28 May 2024. <https://www.news-medical.net/health/Types-of-Dendritic-Cells.aspx>.

  • Chicago

    Mandal, Ananya. "Types of Dendritic Cells". News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Types-of-Dendritic-Cells.aspx. (accessed May 28, 2024).

  • Harvard

    Mandal, Ananya. 2023. Types of Dendritic Cells. News-Medical, viewed 28 May 2024, https://www.news-medical.net/health/Types-of-Dendritic-Cells.aspx.

Comments

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
Post a new comment
Post

While we only use edited and approved content for Azthena answers, it may on occasions provide incorrect responses. Please confirm any data provided with the related suppliers or authors. We do not provide medical advice, if you search for medical information you must always consult a medical professional before acting on any information provided.

Your questions, but not your email details will be shared with OpenAI and retained for 30 days in accordance with their privacy principles.

Please do not ask questions that use sensitive or confidential information.

Read the full Terms & Conditions.

You might also like...
New optimized vaccine approach targets Hepatitis C virus variability