What is Autoimmunity?

The term autoimmunity refers to a failure of the body’s immune system to recognize its own cells and tissues as “self.” Instead, immune responses are launched against these cells and tissues as if they were foreign or invading bodies.

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In previous years, a misconception existed that the body was not capable of recognizing “self” antigens. At the start of the twentieth century, Paul Ehrlich described the concept of “horror autotoxicus,” which referred to how a normal body would not create an immune attack against its own tissue. Therefore, such responses were considered abnormal and a sign of disease.

Now, however, it is well understood that autoimmunity is a key part of the vertebrate immune system that it is usually kept in check by an immunological tolerance of antigens that are “self.”

Functions of the immune system

The immune system exists in almost all complex life forms. The main functions of the immune system are to defend the body from germs and other foreign invaders. The immune system is composed of special cells and organs that, together, mount an immune attack against foreign chemicals, viruses, bacteria, or pollen.

A cell called a B lymphocyte develops into a plasma cell, which produces antibodies to fight off such invaders. Any such substance that triggers an immune response in this way is referred to as an antigen. For the immune system to function appropriately, it must be able to distinguish cells that are “self” from substances that are non-self or foreign.

Autoimmunity, therefore, refers to when the immune system fails to do this and, instead, produces antibodies that are directed towards the body’s own tissues. These are called auto-antibodies.

Autoimmune disorders

Some of the main examples of autoimmune disorders include diabetes mellitus type 1 (IDDM), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease of the thyroid, Sjögren's syndrome, Churg-Strauss Syndrome, Coeliac disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

What are Autoimmune Diseases?


Further Reading

Last Updated: Mar 18, 2021

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.


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The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
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