Traumatic brain injury can cause post-traumatic neurodegenerations with an increase in reactive oxygen species and reactive oxygen species-mediated lipid peroxidation. Melatonin, a non-enzymatic antioxidant and neuroprotective agent, has been shown to counteract oxidative stress-induced pathophysiologic conditions like cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuronal excitotoxicity and chronic inflammation. Therefore, the research team at the Neuroscience Research Center, University of Suleyman Demire, led by Prof. Mustafa Nazıroğlu, aimed to evaluate whether there would be a protective effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels in traumatic brain injury rats. Their study released in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 9, No. 11, 2014) have revealed that the cerebral cortex β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, and erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels, and plasma vitamin C level were decreased by traumatic brain injury whereas they were increased following melatonin treatment. In conclusion, melatonin seems to have protective effects on traumatic brain injury-induced cerebral cortex and blood toxicity by inhibiting free radical formation and supporting antioxidant vitamin redox system.