Single exposure to stress may cause long-term functional and structural consequences in the brain

One day a person experiences deep stress caused by a sudden happening (a traffic accident, a natural catastrophe, an episode of violence). Later on this person could develop a serious neuropsychiatric disorder that may last for years, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Stress is considered a primary risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, traditional animal models for these disorders are
based on repeated or chronic stress, although it is known that in some cases (e.g., PTSD) even a single trauma may be enough to induce the disorder.

A recent study found that a single stressful event may cause long-term consequences in the brain. The authors had found earlier that a short protocol of stress (40 min) enhances the release of glutamate (the major excitatory transmitter) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an effect due mainly to an increase in the number of glutamate-containing vesicles available for release at synapses. They found now that the enhancement of glutamate release in PFC is sustained for at least 24 hours after stress. They also found that after 24 hours significant atrophy of apical dendrites (the receiving part of neurons containing receptors for glutamate) is observed in PFC. Dendrite atrophy is usually measured after weeks of chronic stress in stress-based animal models.

These results completely change our traditional distinction between the effects of acute vs chronic stress. It appears that a single exposure to stress may have long-term functional (glutamate release) and structural (dendrite atrophy) consequences. The dendrite atrophy was found to be sustained for 2 weeks after stress. These stress-related changes may be relevant for pathophysiology of PTSD and other stress-related disorders. Moreover, the assessment of glutamate release and related parameters after stress represents an experimental model to test new compounds for therapy of PTSD, a disorder in which an efficient therapy is still missing.


Università degli Studi di Milano


  1. Rod Allen Rod Allen United States says:

    Man... That is some rocket science journalism right here. Does marijuana get you high? Do guns kill people? Thanks for this brilliant insight since into what is wrong or right in the United States. Quick piece of advice - go back to your parent's paper route. And I'm serious. Otherwise you will just always be a hack, junky journalist. Pick up the next paper you find on the ground. It will give you all the clues.

  2. Tom Nesbit Tom Nesbit United States says:

    How about the stress caused by circumcising babies most without any anesthetic. It even changes cortisol levels and changes feeding habits.  Circumcision also causes sexual dysfunction later in life. Do not circumcise your infant and they wont resent you for it when they get older.

  3. Daphne Wallace-Edwards Daphne Wallace-Edwards United States says:

    I have this from being a scapegoat- my brother is furthering the abuse, though he doesn't realize.

  4. Daphne Wallace-Edwards Daphne Wallace-Edwards United States says:

    The stufstays in the fatty tissues- leaching out while driving, during job interviews/ pther crucial times- as well as a tax, preying on weaknesses of persons for $$$

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