Life Science White Papers are in-depth articles aimed to educate and inform site visitors interested in life science research. Some of these papers are derived from sources where we have existing commercial relationships. Such articles are clearly labelled as sponsored content and are only accepted when the content is deemed to add value to the core editorial ethos of News Medical.
Protein structure and function can be accurately studied using intrinsic fluorescence measurements. A better understanding about the activity or conformational states of proteins under various temperatures, pH, and ion concentrations can be achieved by estimating the quantity of fluorescence.
Generally, in protein and peptide analyses, knowing a molecule’s oligomeric state is useful in determining whether the protein exists in its biologically active form. To this end, the first step usually involves separating and characterizing the molecular species using size exclusion chromatography (SEC).
Composition-gradient multi-angle light scattering (CG-MALS) is a biophysical technique that can be used to measure the self-association of macromolecules in solution. This technique allows fast, reproducible, and label-free measurement of this self-association.
Heparin is an injectable anticoagulant that has been used for medical purposes for more than seven decades. However, this agent has come under considerable scrutiny after certain pharmaceutical lots have been found to contain chondroitin sulfate. Therefore, advanced characterization techniques are needed to accurately determine the exact chemical composition of heparin lots.
One of the most common medical problems in the area of ophthalmology is dry eye syndrome. The eyes usually become dry as a result of external influences such as air travel, air pollution, air conditioning and central heating. This often leads to the tear fluid losing liquid and becoming more concentrated. This article describes a simple and fast technique that can be used to ascertain the osmolarity of salt solutions for the preparation of eye drops.
Dental hypersensitivity is a major, common dental condition that occurs in approximately 57% of adults. Among individuals with periodontal disease, the prevalence can reach as much as 98%
Transfection is a process whereby foreign genetic material is introduced into eukaryotic cells. To this end, several transfection techniques have been developed. However, irrespective of the method used, the transfection efficiency is not 100%.
From the late 1990s, a range of image-based automated cell counters have been launched that provide precise data on cell number and viability. These counters essentially use a combination of image analysis software and light microscopy. A digital camera captures magnified cell images and software algorithms are used to precisely detect cells and distinguish them from non-cellular objects such as cell debris.
Yeast is a very important organism in genetics and cell biology research. Together with its unicellularity, its small genome size and low number of genes make it an invaluable modelling system, particularly for the study of cell cycle regulation and signal transduction.
Industrial hearing loss (also known as occupational deafness or noise-induced hearing loss) is hearing impairment due to prolonged exposure to excessive noise at work. Although its prevalence is falling after the introduction of acts to control noise levels in the workplace, it still affects 14,000 people in the UK and 10,000,000 people in the US.
Pharmaceutical monitoring is an integral part of the production, testing and manufacturing process.
In recent years, epigenetics has become an increasingly important focus in the worlds of academia and industry as researchers try to better understand the fundamental s of transcription regulation. Developments in high throughput ChIP together with the use of automated liquid handing and next generation sequencing is laying the foundations for analysis of global gene expression and understanding the epigenetic landscape in a huge number of cell types across a variety of diseases and treatments.
Advancements in the field of epigenetics are rapidly growing as researchers elucidate the principles controlling gene regulation via the in vivo binding of proteins to DNA. A major aspect in this is the need to study a vast number of regulatory mechanisms to map interactions between DNA and protein following disease and pathogen stimulus.
The uterus is a pear-shaped organ that consists of a lower barrel shaped cervix and a large upper body with the 'fundus' over the uterine tubes. It has a thick muscular wall, which houses the human fetus from conception to birth.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely used technique for mapping the interactions between intracellular proteins and their DNA targets in gene regulation. The epigenetic mechanisms that affect chromatin formation and control the availability of the DNA backbone to transcription factor regulators is an important area of research. ChIP is a technology that allows researchers a glimpse into the regulatory mechanisms that gene expression.
An important aspect of Quality by Design (QbD) is to establish meaningful and realistic specifications. Well-defined specifications control the performance of products, as they derive from associations between clinical behaviour and the variables determined routinely during processing for quality control. This article investigates the process of setting specifications, taking particle size as an example which is a major parameter for a variety of pharmaceutical formulations.
One of the most important techniques used for analyzing biological materials is UV-visible range microspectroscopy.
In forensics laboratories, one of the most frequently used techniques is DNA analysis with UV-visible microspectroscopy.
UV-visible range microspectroscopy is one of the most useful techniques for studying individual protein crystals.
Biological samples typically contain nanomaterials that scatter light significantly, and these samples are usually studied with dark field illumination. When dark field illumination is combined with hyperspectral imaging, it becomes a unique tool that can be used for identifying the location and composition of nanomaterials embedded in cells. To this end, the IMA hyperspectral imager supplied by Photon etc can be used for this application. A high-efficient dark field condenser can be fitted to this hyperspectral imager to produce high contrast images of biological samples.