A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation shows that the Medicare prescription drug plan for seniors and the disabled is providing substantial discounts on drugs. In its report, the organization finds that prices have not been fluctuating as much as had been feared.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) adds outpatient prescription drug benefits to the Medicare program, effective January 1, 2006. To assist Medicare beneficiaries with their outpatient prescription drug costs in 2004 and 2005, the MMA authorizes the establishment of the Medicare Discount Card Program as well as a Transitional Assistance (TA) Program for low-income beneficiaries.
According to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), about 3.9 million beneficiaries have signed up for a Medicare-approved discount card, including almost 1 million qualifying for TA. Nearly 2.3 million of those enrolling are members of Medicare Advantage (MA) plans who were auto-enrolled in a card offered by their plan. In addition, seven of the 31 states with state pharmacy assistance programs (SPAPs) have arranged to auto-enroll their recipients in a discount card. If the number of beneficiaries who were “autoenrolled” by SPAPs is taken into account, the number of beneficiaries enrolling to date on their own initiative would likely be less than 1 million.
This new report examines the early experience with the Medicare-Approved Drug Discount Card Program, prices offered by card sponsors, and potential savings for enrollees. The pricing analysis shows that discount cards can deliver savings off of full retail drug prices, but also that savings for individual beneficiaries can vary significantly across card programs.
Pricing analysis shows that some cards do offer good value when compared to full retail prices paid by cash customers. It also indicates that, after an initial period of price instability and unreliability, the drug prices quoted for these cards have remained relatively stable.
Most of the entities that have been approved for card sponsorship are companies that describe themselves as pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) or firms that perform some or all of the functions of PBMs. Of the 72 originally approved general national and regional card sponsors, 53% can be classified as PBMs. Other sponsors include a variety of businesses that have partnered with entities that have the capacity to manage pharmacy benefits. In addition, 84 MA organizations sponsor discount cards that are available solely to their enrollees (“exclusive cards”).
Number and choice of discount cards. In all, 39 general card programs were originally approved by CMS to accept enrollment throughout the U.S. (“general national” cards); an additional 33 general cards were approved that serve one or more states (“general regional” cards). Little variation exists across the nation in the number of general card programs actually available to beneficiaries, ranging from the originally approved 39 to 43 where multiple regional options are available.
The range of real choices, however, is less than meets the eye. Five of the national card programs that were approved never became operational, reducing the number of general card options to 34. Moreover, many of the card programs are either offered by the same sponsor or utilize the same PBM or similar type of entity. When examined for actual variations in programs, drug prices, enrollment fees, and pharmacy networks, some cards appear to be different in name only.
Beneficiaries may be charged an annual enrollment fee of up to $30 per year. While most do charge a fee, just over half of the general national card programs (21 of the 39) charge the maximum $30 enrollment fee for 2004, compared to only three of the 33 regional discount card programs.
Formularies are important because they define the list of discounted drugs offered by a given card program. Card sponsors are required to offer a discounted price on at least one drug in each of 209 categories developed by CMS. In addition, sponsors must provide at least one generic drug in 95% of the categories for which a generic is available.
Analyzing the comprehensiveness of the formularies for each of the discount card programs is not easy. The Prescription Drug Assistance Program (PDAP) tool on the medicare.gov website only responds to queries about specific drugs, thereby making it extremely laborious to ascertain the universe of drugs included in any card’s formulary. Sponsors vary, moreover, as to how they describe the products available at a discount through their programs. Some programs use adjectives such as "most" or "many" to describe drugs covered by their cards. Others provide beneficiaries with partial lists that contain those drugs that are most frequently prescribed and indicate that a complete list of discounted drugs and prices can be obtained from their toll-free telephone service and mailed upon request. We did find that certain high cost drugs are available from a more limited number of cards. Drug pricing. A fundamental issue in the discount card program is the extent to which card sponsors are able to negotiate significant savings, and in turn, pass those savings along to consumers. All card programs are required to report the value of any discounts or price concessions to CMS, but they are not required to pass along the full value of discounts to their enrollees. Discount prices available to enrollees may change at any time, although the magnitude of any change is limited. Card programs may offer deeper discounts to certain enrollees based on income, but only some do.
Retail and mail order pharmacy access. Convenient access to prescribed drugs is important to beneficiaries who often have close relationships with their pharmacist or may be unable to travel significant distances to obtain prescriptions. Of the 19 national cards providing information on the size of their pharmacy network, 3 indicate that they have between 30,000 and 39,999 pharmacies, 12 have between 40,000 and 49,999, and 4 have 50,000 or more. Complaints have emerged that some pharmacies listed as participating in specific card programs may not, in fact, be doing so. Whether this is a data error or a failure of card sponsors to monitor network agreements could not be determined. Of the 34 general national card programs actively marketing in June 2004, at least 26 also offer a mail order option.
Other sources of assistance. Many pharmaceutical manufacturers sponsor patient assistance or discount card programs that provide free or discounted drugs to targeted populations. In response to the Medicare discount card program, some of these companies have entered into agreements with Medicare-approved drug card sponsors to provide deep discounts on some of their drugs to all beneficiaries qualifying for TA after they have used their $600 annual credit. A few drug companies are also offering additional discounts to enrollees with incomes up to 200% of the federal poverty level. Education and outreach. CMS has relied mainly on an Internet site displaying comparative information on discount card options and a toll-free telephone line with trained customer service representatives who can furnish similar information and mail printed copies of the data on request. Information is also available directly from each card program, although the content varies widely.
However, the sheer volume of relevant data and the complexity of drug pricing can be overwhelming. Despite the government’s significant investment in decision support tools, beneficiary frustration and confusion have reportedly continued, and we too found the process far from user friendly. It is important to note, however, that CMS has reduced telephone waiting times and incorporated improvements to the Medicare.gov website that now make it easier and quicker for those who use these tools.
To read the full report from the Kaiser Family Foundation click here