The rate of diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is the same among all racial groups — one in 110, according to current estimates. However, a study by a Florida State University researcher has found that African-American children tend to be diagnosed later than white children, which results in a longer and more intensive intervention.
The reasons for later diagnoses include a lack of access to quality, affordable, culturally competent health care, according to Martell Teasley, an associate professor in Florida State's College of Social Work who has conducted a comprehensive review of researchliterature on autism and African-American children. In addition, the stigmaattached to mental health conditions within the black community contribute to misdiagnoses of autism, and underuse of available treatment services.
"There are no subjective criteria for diagnosing autism. Only brain scans can truly provide appropriate diagnoses, because we are dealing with biological and chemical imbalances in the brain," Teasley said. "Not every child is going to have access to this kind of medical evaluation, particularly those who are indigent and don't have health care funding."
Teasley examined ASD diagnosis and treatment strategies, and their effect on African-American families, in "Autism and the African-American Community," a paper published in a special issue of the journal Social Work in Public Health (Vol. 26, Issue 4, 2011) that dealt with health-care policy issues in the black community related to the human genome. Teasley co-wrote the paper with Ruby Gourdine, a professor of social work at Howard University in Washington, D.C., and Tiffany Baffour, an associate professor of social work at Winston-Salem State University in North Carolina.
Because of the social stigma, Teasley says that some African-American families might be resistant to accept a diagnosis and treatment.
"Less discussion about autism among African-Americans or between African-Americans and health care providers leads to misdiagnoses, a lack of treatment and a lack of services," Teasley said. "This will lead to greater challenges for families — more stress and anxiety, and poorer developmental outcomes."
African-Americans also might resist a diagnosis and treatment because of a mistrust of mainstream health care providers over past discrimination.
"African-Americans are well versed in going to a doctor who might have biases or discriminatory practices, so they may not readily accept what a doctor says," Teasley said.
In addition, a cultural divide between African-Americans and mainstream health care providers can hinder a timely and correct diagnosis.
"There are not enough health care professionals who understand the cultural norms and attributes of the African-American community," Teasley said.
African-Americans live in all types of settings, but the majority live in urban areas, which have seen a decline in the number of mental-health care agencies since the 1980s.
"This lack of accessibility causes a problem for some African-Americans," Teasley said.
Once a child is diagnosed with ASD, Teasley says both the child and the members of his or her family needs to receive appropriate training and counseling.
"The children need behavioral counseling so they can develop the skills to live as independently as possible," he said. "The families need to learn how to work with children who are autistic.
"Intervention for any autistic child needs to start around age 3, so we can get the child to begin to learn how to eat right and develop normal, healthy routines, which will result in a better developmental outcome," Teasley said. "Later intervention will result in a poorer developmental outcome that can have a lasting impact on the child's and family's quality of life."