Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a short peptide made up of 60 amino acid residues. This sequence is homologous across several species. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is the place where GALP is produced. GALP has diverse physiological effects such as the regulation of feeding, energy metabolism, and reproductive behavior. Neurons that contain GALP also express leptin receptors; at the same time these neurons form a network in the hypothalamus and these contain various amounts of peptides that regulate their feeding behavior.
New research has shown that, GALP consists of anti-obesity action when it comes to its role in consumption of food and nutrition. After the administration of GALP into the lateral ventricle a decline in the respiratory quotient was also found. It is inferred that because of GALP, lipid metabolism could be accelerated. This is a recently discovered physiological action for this peptide.
In this review, recent research about how GALP regulates feeding and energy metabolism has been summarized. Attention on the regulation mechanism of lipid metabolism that takes place in peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system is also given. The effectiveness of the nasal administration of GALP is also presented from a perspective of basic research and clinical application.