Measures to tackle climate change could significantly benefit human health in the next few years, as well as in the long-term, says a new report from the Academy of Medical Sciences and the Royal Society.
The report calls on the UK government to make sure that the initiatives they establish to tackle climate change are also designed to deliver benefits to health.
Co-chaired by Professor Sir Andy Haines from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and Professor Joanna Haigh, the report brought together 11 leading experts came together to review evidence from a range of sources around the health impacts of initiatives to tackle climate change.
It concludes that if health is made central to the climate agenda, actions taken to reach UK net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 will have near-term benefits for human health in the UK, as well as helping to reduce the risks to health from global climate change.
In a world filled with challenges, this report brings us some profoundly good news: the choices we make individually and as a society to prevent climate change will also improve our health with the potential to reduce the pressure on our overburdened health services - both now and for future generations.
Our report gives many 'win-win' examples of actions that would have a positive impact on health and the climate. Sectors including transport, food, building and energy should take health into account when implementing climate actions to capitalize on these double benefits. Many of the measures, such as improved public transport access and energy efficient housing, could also help decrease health inequalities."
Professor Sir Andy Haines, LSHTM
The report urges UK policy makers and funders to put health benefits at the heart of climate change discussions, debate and action. Key examples of areas where action against climate change impacts positively on health include:
- Phasing out fossil fuels: Switching from fossil fuels to cleaner power generation will reduce air pollution, improve health and save lives.
- Travel: Supporting public transport, increased cycling and walking, as well as switching to electric vehicles, will lead to environmental and health benefits from more physical activity and lower air pollution.
- Food production and diet: Continuing to reduce the UK's red meat consumption while increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables would significantly cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid or delay deaths from heart disease, stroke and cancer.
- Buildings: Warmer, better insulated homes should prevent some of these premature deaths, as well as cutting fuel bills. Adequate ventilation is also required to ensure indoor air quality and maximize health benefits.
- Healthcare: Last year the NHS was the first national healthcare system to commit to net zero direct emissions by 2040 and indirect emissions by 2045.
Professor Joanna Haigh from Imperial College London said: "Climate change poses a catastrophic threat to humanity and the natural systems that underpin our lives. It is obvious that tackling climate change will have a positive impact on human health in the long-term, however our report provides evidence that many of the actions needed for the UK to meet the target of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 will also benefit our health in the near-term.
"We would like to see the UK government seize the opportunity provided by COP26 to show global leadership and bring health to the forefront of the climate narrative."
The report noted that while the impact of climate change mitigation strategies was mainly positive, there could also be unintended negative effects on health. Close attention should be paid to international supply chains and economic systems that will underpin the global net zero transition - for example, reliance on batteries for renewable power means more cobalt needs to be mined, which may have health disadvantages for the communities involved.
The report also asks that climate change initiatives are robustly and consistently monitored for their impacts on health, and that researchers from different disciplines work together to help maximize the health benefits.
The pandemic has made us think more deeply about the way we work, travel and live. We must use the opportunities of a 'new normal' to drive forward greener environments and lifestyles knowing that they will benefit the planet, and in turn our health. However, we live with unacceptable health inequalities in our society. Whilst the actions we can take to mitigate climate change will improve the health of the public, policies must be designed to ensure that healthier and greener options are accessible for all. I look forward to supporting the Academy to contribute further to the climate and health agenda and considering how we can become a better planetary citizen in our own policies and actions."
Professor Dame Anne Johnson, President of the Academy of Medical Sciences