Neurosurgeons discover potential markers of glial brain tumors

RUDN University neurosurgeons have discovered potential markers of the most common brain tumor. They turned out to be microRNAs - small sequences of nucleotides. So far, there is not enough research in this direction, but in the future, microRNAs will help to diagnose glioma in time. The results are published in Non-coding RNA Research.

Glioma is a tumor that affects the glial cells in the brain. It is the most common brain tumor. The fourth degree of malignancy is practically untreatable. Therefore, early diagnosis of this disease is extremely important. Currently, MRI and biopsy remain the main methods of diagnosis. However, these methods are inaccurate, and besides, a biopsy poses a certain risk for the patient. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new diagnostic methods that will help detect this dangerous disease. RUDN neurosurgeons have collected the latest research looking for markers of glioma in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

"Gliomas are malignant tumors of the central nervous system. The annual incidence of gliomas worldwide is approximately six cases per 100,000 people. The importance of their early diagnosis is obvious - diagnosis before the onset of symptoms increases the chances of successful treatment of the patient. Recently, new methods for diagnosing gliomas have been proposed not only with the help of imaging and biopsy, but also by analyzing biological fluids, mainly blood and cerebrospinal fluid," said Albert Sufianov MD, Director of the Educational and Scientific Institute of Neurosurger, RUDN University.

Neurosurgeons came to the conclusion that DNA could become a promising marker of glioma. More precisely, miRNAs are small sequences of nucleotides that do not encode any traits, but take part in cellular activity. However, the mass application of microRNA analysis for the diagnosis of glioma is not yet possible. First, most of the research in this direction was carried out on too small a number of patients. Secondly, gliomas are composed of heterogeneous formations, and this complicates the analysis. Based on this, RUDN University researchers identified the main task - to conduct research on large samples.

Prospective studies are needed to obtain reliable data. They will help determine the role of miRNAs in the development of gliomas and confirm their effectiveness as biomarkers in the diagnosis of brain tumors. An in-depth study of the molecular genetic characteristics of gliomas based on the role of miRNAs is a promising direction in determining the mechanisms of tumor growth for timely and adequate therapy, as well as predicting the course of oncological diseases."

Albert Sufianov, MD, Director of the Educational and Scientific Institute of Neurosurgery, RUDN University

Journal reference:

Sufianov, A., et al. (2022) MicroRNAs as potential diagnostic markers of glial brain tumors. Non-coding RNA Research.


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