Dietary shifts to less processed foods significantly lower triglycerides in women

NewsGuard 100/100 Score

During reproductive age, poor nutrition quality increases obesity rates and, as a result, the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidemia also impacts health, particularly among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In pregnant women, elevated triglycerides increase the risk of gestational diabetes, which can lead to type 2 diabetes and CVD later in life.

In a recent study published in the journal Nutrients, researchers perform data simulation modeling to determine potential reductions in fasting triglycerides that various dietary approaches may provide for women of reproductive age.

Study: Dietary Strategies to Reduce Triglycerides in Women of Reproductive Age: A Simulation Modelling Study. Image Credit: Inside Creative House / Shutterstock.com Study: Dietary Strategies to Reduce Triglycerides in Women of Reproductive Age: A Simulation Modelling Study. Image Credit: Inside Creative House / Shutterstock.com

About the study

The objective of the current study was to create a discrete-time, static, microsimulation, and deterministic model to evaluate how lowering processed and ultra-processed food intake might affect triglyceride levels among fertile women. Using the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) data, Australians were randomly selected by complicated, stratified, and multiple-stage probability-type cluster sampling. Plasma biomarkers, dietary consumption, and demographics were all incorporated into the model.

The researchers performed multiple linear regression analyses to assess triglyceride levels and adjusted for covariate factors, including age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, family history of diabetes, diet, and serum biomarkers. Dietary scenarios that increased the consumption of minimally processed food items, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and fish, and decreased that of processed foods and ultra-processed meals were also considered.

Energy and nutritional values were estimated for every 100 grams of food consumed by NNPAS participants using the 2011-2013 Food Standards Australia and New Zealand Nutrient (AUSNUT) database. Foods were categorized as unprocessed or slightly processed, processed foods, processed materials for cooking, and foods of the ultra-processed type using the NOVA food categorization system.

The mean daily nutrient consumption was calculated for each population member to simulate scenarios. In the first scenario, the gram weight of ultra-processed and processed foods was reduced by 50% to model the effects of lowering energy and optional nutrients like salt, sugar, and saturated fats on triglyceride levels in the population.

The second scenario involved substituting processed foods with minimally processed or unprocessed products, represented by increases of 25%, 50%, and 75% in NOVA unprocessed or minimally processed meals. The third scenario involved replacing PFs with foods enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and was modeled as a gradual rise in nuts or seafood high in omega-3 PUFAs.

The substitution of processed foods with vegetables and fruits was the fourth scenario. In the fifth scenario, processed foods were replaced with healthier dietary options. In the sixth scenario, high saturated fat oils were replaced with those rich in mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

Study findings

The current study included 606 fertile women with a mean age of 36 and a BMI of 27 kg/m2. Less than one serving and almost two servings of fruits and vegetables were consumed daily, respectively, with 71% of the meals processed and 24% minimally or unprocessed.

In the first scenario, reducing processed food intake by 50% resulted in a 0.2% reduction in triglycerides. A reduction of 2.6 kJ/day in calories and 1,295 mg/day in sodium was achieved by reducing the intake of calories, nutrients, alcohol, free sugars, added sugars, and salt.

In the second scenario, there was a notable reduction in processed foods, as they were substituted with minimally or unprocessed foods that reduced calorie intake from 850 kJ/day to 2,000 kJ/day while attenuating most nutrient levels. Vitamin A, B12, and long-chain-type omega-3 PUFAs increased by 12%, with a 75% rise in minimally processed or unprocessed meals.

In the third scenario, triglycerides were lowered by 9.9%. By reducing processed food consumption by 50% and increasing long-chain-type omega-3 intake by 1,800 mg/day, total fat decreased by 8.4 g/day, and salt decreased by 860 mg/day.

In the fourth scenario, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption increased total calorie intake from 5,500 to 6,000 kJ/day. However, increasing micronutrient consumption decreased triglycerides by 0-5.5% and 0.9-2.1%, respectively.

In the fifth scenario, theoretical triglyceride reductions of 1.2-4.3% were achieved by decreasing processed foods by 50% and ingesting 40 g/day of nuts, 150 g/d of fruits, and 225 g/day of vegetables. In the sixth and final scenario, triglyceride levels increased by 0.9% without significantly changing the nutritional profile.

Conclusions

The study findings demonstrate that replacing 50% of processed foods with 25-75% of minimally processed or unprocessed foods reduced triglyceride levels by up to 2.8%. Fish, nuts, fruits, and vegetables worked synergistically to lower triglycerides by up to 8.2%, whereas consuming high-omega-3 fish reduced triglyceride levels by 9.9%.

Future studies are needed to determine the therapeutic significance of reducing triglycerides for managing cardiometabolic diseases among women participating in dietary intervention trials.

Journal reference:
  • Habibi, N., Leemaqz, S., Louie, J. C. Y., et al. (2023). Dietary Strategies to Reduce Triglycerides in Women of Reproductive Age: A Simulation Modelling Study. Nutrients 15(5137). doi:10.3390/ nu15245137
Pooja Toshniwal Paharia

Written by

Pooja Toshniwal Paharia

Dr. based clinical-radiological diagnosis and management of oral lesions and conditions and associated maxillofacial disorders.

Citations

Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Toshniwal Paharia, Pooja Toshniwal Paharia. (2023, December 20). Dietary shifts to less processed foods significantly lower triglycerides in women. News-Medical. Retrieved on April 17, 2024 from https://www.news-medical.net/news/20231220/Dietary-shifts-to-less-processed-foods-significantly-lower-triglycerides-in-women.aspx.

  • MLA

    Toshniwal Paharia, Pooja Toshniwal Paharia. "Dietary shifts to less processed foods significantly lower triglycerides in women". News-Medical. 17 April 2024. <https://www.news-medical.net/news/20231220/Dietary-shifts-to-less-processed-foods-significantly-lower-triglycerides-in-women.aspx>.

  • Chicago

    Toshniwal Paharia, Pooja Toshniwal Paharia. "Dietary shifts to less processed foods significantly lower triglycerides in women". News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20231220/Dietary-shifts-to-less-processed-foods-significantly-lower-triglycerides-in-women.aspx. (accessed April 17, 2024).

  • Harvard

    Toshniwal Paharia, Pooja Toshniwal Paharia. 2023. Dietary shifts to less processed foods significantly lower triglycerides in women. News-Medical, viewed 17 April 2024, https://www.news-medical.net/news/20231220/Dietary-shifts-to-less-processed-foods-significantly-lower-triglycerides-in-women.aspx.

Comments

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
Post a new comment
Post

While we only use edited and approved content for Azthena answers, it may on occasions provide incorrect responses. Please confirm any data provided with the related suppliers or authors. We do not provide medical advice, if you search for medical information you must always consult a medical professional before acting on any information provided.

Your questions, but not your email details will be shared with OpenAI and retained for 30 days in accordance with their privacy principles.

Please do not ask questions that use sensitive or confidential information.

Read the full Terms & Conditions.

You might also like...
Study links ultra-processed food consumption with higher cardiovascular risk