Albumin: A Marker of Tissue Damage and Organ Function

The Mouse Albumin ELISA kit from Bethyl Laboratories is a multipurpose reagent that can be used for various biomedical and molecular biology research fields. The reason is that albumin, found normally in the blood, serves as an indicator of tissue damage and organ function.

Albumin as a crucial biomarker

Albumin is a protein crucial for quantifying the effects of kidney disease. Albumin remains in the blood when normally functioning kidneys filter blood. When there is kidney damage, the filter cannot filter out albumin properly, resulting in the excretion of albumin with the urine—a symptom called albuminuria.

This can be measured and serves as a marker of kidney damage.

Advantages of Bethyl’s Mouse Albumin ELISA

The Mouse Albumin ELISA helps characterize reasons for kidney damage: for instance, in an experimental model of cast nephropathy, commonly found in patients of multiple myeloma, the occurrence of free immunoglobulin light chains led to kidney damage, as quantified by an increase in the urine albumin to creatine ratio, using the ELISA kit.1

This study then described a novel signaling pathway that involves Stat,1 which induces inflammation in this form of kidney disease.

Hepatocytes in the liver secrete the albumin found in the blood. This property was leveraged by another study to quantify the functionality of 3D organoid cultures of hepatocytes.2

Bethyl’s Mouse Albumin ELISA was used by the researchers of that study to quantify albumin secretion from primary hepatocytes, cholangiocyte organoids and hepatocyte organoids. The hepatocyte organoids were demonstrated to secrete a similar quantity of albumin to primary hepatocytes.

By contrast, the cholangiocyte organoids—cells of the bile duct—do not secrete albumin, as predicted.

Albumin secretion by hepatocytes is also a valuable tool to characterize the transdifferentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) into hepatocytes.3

Albumin secretion from ESC overexpressing the Sox9 gene was measure using Bethyl’s Mouse Albumin ELISA kit and was then cultured in hepatocyte-specific media, showing that these cells secrete considerably elevated levels of albumin compared to control ESC. These results show that Sox9 can improve the differentiation of ESC into hepatocytes.

Albumin is found in blood, and thus its measurement in organs signifies tissue damage. For instance, when blood leaks into the retina, it causes vision loss, one of the causes of which is oxygen-induced retinopathy.

Vascular leakage is reduced by either adoptively transferred T regulatory cells or an IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complex, as quantified by the occurrence of albumin in retina with the Mouse Albumin ELISA.4

The presence of albumin in the tissue also helps measure the extent of lung damage, particularly in the bronchial-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF).5 One study intended to identify the role played by myeloid protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the lung injury regulation.

In this case, the Mouse Albumin ELISA was used to demonstrate that PP2A-deficient mice are more vulnerable to lung damage, indicated by a statistically significant increase in BALF than wild-type mice.

All the above-mentioned facts show that Bethyl’s Mouse Albumin ELISA is a multipurpose tool that can be used in different fields.

References

  1. Ying W-Z, Li X, Rangarajan S, Feng W, Curtis LM, Sanders PW (2019) Immunoglobulin light chains generate proinflammatory and profibrotic kidney injury. Journal of Clinical Investigation 129:2792–2806. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci125517.
  2. Hu H, Gehart H, Artegiani B, LÖpez-Iglesias C, Dekkers F, Basak O, van Es J, Chuva de Sousa Lopes SM, Begthel H, Korving J, van den Born M, Zou C, Quirk C, Chiriboga L, Rice CM, Ma S, Rios A, Peters PJ, de Jong YP, Clevers H (2018) Long-Term Expansion of Functional Mouse and Human Hepatocytes as 3D Organoids. Cell 175:1591–1606.e19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.11.013.
  3. Yamamizu K, Schlessinger D, Ko MSH (2014) SOX9 accelerates ESC differentiation to three germ layer lineages by repressing SOX2 expression through P21 (WAF1/CIP1). Development 141:4254–4266. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.115436.
  4. Deliyanti D, Talia DM, Zhu T, Maxwell MJ, Agrotis A, Jerome JR, Hargreaves EM, Gerondakis S, Hibbs ML, Mackay F, Wilkinson-Berka JL (2017) Foxp3+ Tregs are recruited to the retina to repair pathological angiogenesis. Nat Commun 8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00751-w.
  5. Sun L, Hult EM, Cornell TT, Kim KK, Shanley TP, Wilke CA, Agarwal M, Gurczynski SJ, Moore BB, Dahmer MK (2019) Loss of myeloid-specific protein phosphatase 2A enhances lung injury and fibrosis and results in IL-10-dependent sensitization of epithelial cell apoptosis. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 316:L1035–L1048. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00299.2018.

About Bethyl Laboratories, Inc.

Bethyl Laboratories, Inc. has been dedicated to supporting scientific discovery through its qualified antibody products and custom polyclonal antibody services since its founding in 1972.

Currently, Bethyl’s portfolio consists of over 9,500 catalog products; offering over 8,200 primary antibodies targeting over 3,300 proteins and 1,300 secondary antibodies raised against immunoglobulins from over 25 species.

With over 45 years of experience, Bethyl is also a leading provider of custom polyclonal antibody production services. Bethyl offers complete packages from initial peptide synthesis to affinity purification of custom polyclonal antibodies from an antigen-specific immunosorbent.

Most recently, our capabilities have expanded and we now offer contract recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody partnerships.

Every antibody that Bethyl sells has been manufactured to exacting standards at its sole location in Montgomery, Texas, and has been validated in-house by Bethyl’s team of scientists. From the veterinary facilities to the development, production and validation labs, the entire Bethyl team focuses on delivering quality products.

What does it take for an antibody to pass Bethyl’s validation and quality control? In other words, what makes a really good antibody? First and foremost, an antibody must be shown to recognize the intended protein target. An antibody must also show high sensitivity with minimal cross-reactivity.

To achieve these goals, Bethyl has devised a unique process for validating the specificity of its antibody products, which is critical to reproducibility of antibody-based experiments in life science.

While many companies settle on using data from a single antibody, Bethyl tests with paired antibodies raised against distinct protein epitopes.

Only after an antibody has been validated for specificity in immunoprecipitation and/or Western blot is it then tested in additional applications such as immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, ChIP and proximity ligation assay.

Because of its rigorous validation process and high standards, Bethyl does not sell every antibody it makes. Bethyl serves to advance science by concentrating its resources on developing qualified antibodies, including many to emerging and underserved protein targets.


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Last updated: Mar 15, 2021 at 5:08 AM

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