New UK HIV infection data

In the first three months of 2004, 1389 new diagnoses of HIV infection were reported.  This brought the cumulative total to 62,709 since surveillance began in 1982.  To date, 20,307 individuals have been diagnosed with AIDS, of which 12,898 (64%) have died with a further 2818 individuals having died without being reported with AIDS.

Table 1 New diagnoses of HIV in the UK by infection route, sex and year of diagnosis: data to the end of March 2004

How infection was probably acquired Sex <1994 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002* 2003* Jan-Mar 2004 Total
Sex between men M
15,944
1485
1475
1552
1408
1369
1363
1514
1758
1795
1641
178
31,482
Sex between men and women M
1783
353
388
358
451
519
600
757
1067
1289
1172
83
8820
F
2024
442
465
479
557
644
832
1245
1809
2200
2199
152
13,048
Injecting drug use M
1842
121
123
118
121
96
77
72
97
81
65
8
2821
F
858
46
59
54
48
35
34
39
36
26
32
2
1269
Receiving blood or blood products M
1419
9
12
10
16
4
10
9
14
14
11
1528
F
116
8
8
11
13
6
11
15
11
16
12
1
228
Mother to infant M
116
34
32
29
51
47
37
54
52
48
61
6
567
F
126
32
28
33
33
50
42
49
40
49
55
5
542
Other M
9
2
2
2
1
2
6
3
7
2
1
37
F
13
2
1
2
2
3
4
2
29
Undetermined M
430
27
34
27
24
22
21
20
18
18
9
650
F
50
3
3
6
6
9
4
3
2
3
2
91
Follow-up ongoing M
89
10
16
16
12
20
28
36
82
189
301
72
871
F
21
4
4
3
7
8
12
27
45
208
301
45
685
Total†  
24,840
2576
2651
2699
2748
2833
3079
3846
5038
5942
5864
552
62,668
*Numbers will rise as further reports are received.
†Forty-one people whose sex was not reported were excluded: seven infected through sex between men and women, three blood recipients, two infected through mother to infant transmission, and 29 for whom the likely route of infection is not known.

Of the 5864 diagnoses reported so far in 2003, 28% (1641) were acquired through sex between men, and 57% (3371) through sex between men and women, with almost two thirds (2199) of those being female (table 1).  Diagnoses among injecting drug users remained relatively low in 2003, making up 2% of the total, reported to date.  Follow-up to ascertain the probable route of infection was still ongoing for 10% (602) of reports. 

Since 1999, the number of infections diagnosed in heterosexual men and women have exceeded those in men who have sex with men (MSM).  Diagnoses in both groups has subsequently risen each year .  The increase in diagnoses has been substantial in those infected through heterosexual sex, with the majority of these infections acquired abroad.  For diagnoses in heterosexual men and women made in 2003, 70% were infected in African countries, and 7.5% in other parts of the world (table 2).  Although these figures include individuals infected while travelling or living abroad, for the most part they represent those who were born in and who lived for most of their lives in the country where they were infected. 

Table 2 New diagnoses of HIV in those infected through sex between men and women by year of diagnosis: data to the end of March 2004

How HIV infection was probably acquired <1994 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002* 2003* Jan-Mar 2004 Total
Exposure to "high risk" partner(s) ,ie, to partner(s) presumed infected through: Sex between men
133
21
12
11
11
12
12
13
25
20
12
2
284
Injecting drug use
236
32
41
33
49
49
25
23
37
22
20
567
Blood factor treatment
67
2
3
6
1
1
1
1
1
2
85
Blood/tissue transfer
13
1
3
5
3
4
1
4
2
36
Exposure to presumed heterosexually infected partner(s): In Africa
2450
532
560
552
642
750
1000
1497
2205
2600
2370
123
15,281
In Latin America/Caribbean
86
26
13
24
30
32
64
68
83
125
92
7
650
In Asia
95
18
39
44
53
79
76
109
100
101
102
6
822
In North America
72
9
8
8
10
15
7
6
9
6
6
156
In Europe (not UK)
165
36
43
42
50
42
50
46
46
53
51
2
626
In Australasia
8
2
1
2
4
6
2
5
2
4
36
In country(ies) not known (abroad)
23
2
7
3
15
2
52
In UK - partner infected outside Europe
108
39
49
42
72
84
91
135
170
185
177
10
1162
In UK - partner infected in Europe (including UK)
144
43
38
29
40
39
46
47
53
31
51
5
566
In UK - partner's country of infection not known
185
30
33
28
30
26
30
25
48
85
85
10
615
Partner(s) exposure category undetermined: Investigation continuing
4
3
2
3
2
9
16
23
89
253
399
70
873
Investigation closed
23
4
7
4
8
4
5
4
2
3
64
Total  
3812
795
853
837
1008
1164
1433
2002
2876
3489
3371
235
21,875
*Numbers will rise as further reports are received

Infections transmitted through blood transfusion or from mother to child are for the most part acquired outside the United Kingdom (UK).  Men who have sex with men are the group most at risk of acquiring HIV in the UK.  For new diagnoses in 2003 in MSM, where country of infection was reported (891 of 1641), 84% (749) were infected in the UK. This compares with 11% (328/2966) of heterosexual cases – this figure includes those who had a “high risk” partner and who were infected in the UK, and excludes from the denominator 405 individuals where country of infection was not yet ascertained.  Numbers of individuals infected through heterosexual contact in the UK have been increasing gradually and continue to make up around 10% to 11% of new diagnoses in heterosexual men and women annually.

Table 3 describes new diagnoses of HIV infection over time by the region where the earliest diagnosis was made.  London remains the focus of HIV in the UK, with 2566 (44%) of new diagnoses in 2003 being made there.  A further 21% of diagnoses were in the regions adjacent to London.  All regions have seen increases in new diagnoses each year since 1999 including areas that previously saw relatively few HIV cases, such as the North East, Yorkshire and Humberside, Eastern England, and Wales.  In each of these regions (and Wales) new diagnoses more than doubled between 1999 and 2002.  Figures for 2003 are incomplete due to reporting delay and on the basis of previous patterns of reporting delay they will exceed those for 2002, and are expected to do so by a considerable margin. 

Since 1997 there has been a steadying in the number of AIDS cases and deaths (table 3, figure 1).  There has also been a reduction in AIDS reporting since the advent of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), and AIDS defining illnesses are more likely to be reported if the HIV and AIDS diagnoses are simultaneous.  In 2003, 77% (545) of the 705 AIDS cases diagnosed were diagnosed at the same time as the HIV infection.  Reporting of deaths is also subject to reporting delay so the figure of 462 already known about in 2003 is elevated compared to previous years.  Reports of deaths occurring in HIV infected individuals in 2002 rose from 349 at the end of March 2003 to 405 a year later.

Table 3 New diagnoses of HIV infection by country and region where diagnosed and year of diagnosis: data to the end of March 2004

Country and region of diagnosis <1994 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002* 2003* Jan-Mar 2004 Total
England  
North East
391
32
21
24
34
22
30
36
53
95
127
14
879
Yorkshire & Humberside
800
65
81
90
82
86
91
99
181
299
369
24
2267
East Midlands
490
57
52
48
44
62
85
100
197
253
299
27
1714
East of England
636
61
77
56
77
85
96
186
311
477
504
42
2608
London
15,041
1584
1680
1707
1730
1768
1952
2341
2786
2831
2566
293
36,279
South East
2027
233
169
227
215
207
217
351
486
677
752
62
5623
South West
793
108
87
77
91
104
103
104
135
177
180
15
1974
West Midlands
775
75
99
64
99
109
103
178
213
403
297
13
2428
North West
1414
147
179
186
149
187
207
234
424
403
392
9
3931
England (total)
22,367
2362
2445
2479
2521
2630
2884
3629
4786
5615
5486
499
57,703
Wales
372
46
46
36
44
31
34
46
65
78
100
1
899
Northern Ireland
122
14
12
16
9
9
14
19
19
25
31
290
Scotland
1984
147
147
162
167
158
148
151
161
217
243
52
3737
UK Total
24,845
2569
2650
2693
2741
2828
3080
3845
5031
5935
5860
552
62,629
Channel Islands/Isle of Man
31
8
1
6
8
6
1
1
7
7
4
80
Total diagnoses† <1994 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Jan-Mar 2004 Total
HIV diagnoses
24,876
2577
2651
2699
2749
2834
3081
3846
5038
5942
5864
552
62,709
AIDS diagnoses
9551
1853
1769
1438
1075
784
748
824
709
822
705
29
20,307
Deaths‡
7004
1700
1719
1462
735
507
469
478
471
405
462
61
15,716
* Numbers will rise as further reports are received
# Includes diagnoses in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man
‡Total includes 243 deaths where year of death is not known (including all deaths in children)

Comments

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
Post a new comment
Post
You might also like... ×
TB must also be reduced to achieve the goal of ending AIDS epidemic by 2030