A new article published online by JAMA Pediatrics estimates there were 69 perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among infants born in the United States in 2013 (1.75 per 100,000 live births), down from an estimated 216 perinatal HIV infections among infants born in 2002 (5.37 per 100,000 live births).
Updated national estimates of the number of perinatal HIV transmissions in the United States are needed to guide policy and monitor progress toward the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission.
Steven R. Nesheim, M.D., of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and coauthors used existing HIV surveillance data to estimate the numbers and describe the characteristics of infants with perinatal HIV infection in recent years in the United States.
Maternal and infant factors associated with infant HIV infection include late maternal diagnosis and lack of antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis, according to the article.
"Despite reduced perinatal HIV infection in the United States, missed opportunities for prevention were common among infected infants and their mothers in recent years.
As of 2013, the incidence of perinatal HIV infection remained 1.75 times the proposed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission goal of 1 per 100,000 live births," the article concludes.