A researcher at Binghamton University, State University of New York has received a $1.74 million, five-year grant from the National Institutes of Health to explore how prenatal alcohol exposure leads to 'anxious' offspring.
Binghamton University Associate Professor of Psychology Marvin Diaz received the grant. Called "Prenatal Alcohol and Anxiety: An Ontogenetic Role for CRF," the research centers around the system that regulates corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a peptide that's released during periods of stress and anxiety.
The grant is really focused on developing our understanding of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. We know that a certain percentage of women drink during pregnancy and that the effects of alcohol on the developing fetus can last throughout their lifetime."
Marvin Diaz, Associate Professor of Psychology, Binghamton University
Offspring exposed to alcohol in the womb experience a higher incidence of anxiety disorders later in life, which may also be correlated with an increased predisposition to develop alcohol use disorders themselves. However, researchers don't currently have a full understanding of the brain changes contributing to the behavior.
That's where animal models -; the rats -; come in. So, how do you tell if a rat is anxious?
Rats and mice are typically nocturnal animals and are wary about navigating open spaces because of the risk of predators. When nervous, they tend to hide in corners, underbrush, and other hidden spaces, Diaz explained.
During experiments, the rats are put into an apparatus where they can choose to stay in an enclosed compartment or venture out into an open area. Their choices can indicate whether they are experiencing anxiety-like behavior or fear response, Diaz explained.
The research will attempt to capture how these behaviors and the CRF system change across the lifespan and their relationship to alcohol intake. To that end, they will focus on three different age points to see if these effects are dynamic as the offspring mature, whether they emerge later in life or even lessen in time.
Through this project, Diaz hopes to learn how the CRF system naturally develops, which is currently unknown. It could eventually lead to better diagnosis and treatment options in human patients at some point in the future.
"This grant is aimed at helping us to ask those questions and really test the relationship between anxiety and the predisposition to use alcohol following prenatal alcohol exposure," he said.