Impact of atrial fibrillation in COVID-19 vaccine-induced pericarditis patients

In a clinical correspondence published in the latest issue of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, a team of researchers described the case of a healthy 49-year old male patient with new-onset atrial fibrillation.

This patient showed atrial fibrillation eight days after receiving the second dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine.

Study: Atrial fibrillation as a precursor of mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced pericarditis. Image Credit: Magic mine/ShutterstockStudy: Atrial fibrillation as a precursor of mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced pericarditis. Image Credit: Magic mine/Shutterstock

Acute pericarditis, an inflammation of the pericardium, is a recognized complication observed in patients after taking mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. Subsequently, the implementation of mass vaccination programs globally has led to a sudden spike in the cases of pericarditis; however, new-onset atrial fibrillation is extremely rare after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pericarditis.

In two European hospitals, 822 patients developed pericarditis over eight years, of which only 34 (4.3%) developed atrial fibrillation within 24 hours of their diagnosis. None of these patients had atrial fibrillation before they were diagnosed with pericarditis.

Pericarditis patients who developed atrial fibrillation were significantly older than those who did not, while almost all of them converted spontaneously to sinus rhythm within 24 hours. So far, only one 30-year-old male patient with Marfan’s syndrome has been reported to have developed atrial fibrillation a week after receiving his Moderna vaccine. However, his overall medical condition was much different from the patient described in this study.

Clinical presentation of the patient

The researchers of the present study described the case of a healthy 49-year-old male patient with 30 minutes of palpitations who was seeking an emergency admission. Notably, before eight days, he had received the second dose of his Moderna vaccination.

The patient’s vitals were normal, with a white blood cell count of 14.5 × 103 cc/L. He showed a heart rate of 110–125 beats per minute and normal blood pressure and respiratory rate.  Although he had mild chest discomfort with shortness of breath and irregular pulse, he did not have a fever. His electrocardiogram (ECG) confirmed atrial fibrillation without any segment elevations or depressions. Therefore, after his informed consent, he was electrically converted to normal sinus rhythm, and post this procedure, his ECG showed no segment deviations or abnormal intervals.

He was prescribed rivaroxaban and discharged from the hospital, and given an outpatient cardiology appointment after three weeks.

Discussion

As cases of pericarditis post-COVID-19 mRNA vaccination are small, the pathophysiology of this condition is relatively unknown. This illness, however, is typically reported within one to two weeks after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with an average age of 50.

Clinicians have proposed some mechanisms, including hypersensitivity to vaccine constituents, an excessive inflammatory reaction, or an inappropriate immune response for its diagnosis. The diagnosis of such patients could be based on the following Canadian clinical practice guidelines - the onset of symptoms within a week of mRNA vaccination, dyspnea, chest pain, or syncope, in addition to ECG showing pericarditis or pericardial effusion and elevated cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers. For severe cases, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or endocardial biopsy was recommended.

It is worth noting here that the majority of patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation are discharged from the hospital on the same day safely, and even when admitted, they are kept under observation for usually one day.

The diagnostic procedures include a physical examination and sometimes use of biomarkers, and non-invasive imaging. Patient history, however, is taken into consideration before finally concluding the diagnoses, which is ascertained via biopsy and histologic assessments.

Conclusions

Although rare, post-COVID-19 mRNA vaccination atrial fibrillation has been reported in patients with pericarditis. The study does not endorse that all patients with new or deteriorating atrial fibrillation need extensive medical investigation. Further, the authors did not recommend any specific treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation and advised only supportive treatment.

However, they recommended physical examination techniques for a timely diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Physicians could use auscultation for a friction rub, assess neck veins, or ascertain pulsus paradoxus. More importantly, they could use bedside ultrasound for diagnosis, which is rapid, inexpensive, and easy to perform in any environment and causes minimal patient discomfort.

Currently, it is not clear whether patients with pericarditis should opt for a non-mRNA COVID-19 vaccination; however, judiciously weighing the infection risks vs. risks of vaccination is strongly advised as COVID-19 infection and mRNA vaccines are associated with incidences of myocarditis, pericarditis, heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and thromboembolic events.

Journal reference:
Neha Mathur

Written by

Neha Mathur

Neha is a digital marketing professional based in Gurugram, India. She has a Master’s degree from the University of Rajasthan with a specialization in Biotechnology in 2008. She has experience in pre-clinical research as part of her research project in The Department of Toxicology at the prestigious Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow, India. She also holds a certification in C++ programming.

Citations

Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Mathur, Neha. (2022, January 19). Impact of atrial fibrillation in COVID-19 vaccine-induced pericarditis patients. News-Medical. Retrieved on November 30, 2022 from https://www.news-medical.net/news/20220119/Impact-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-COVID-19-vaccine-induced-pericarditis-patients.aspx.

  • MLA

    Mathur, Neha. "Impact of atrial fibrillation in COVID-19 vaccine-induced pericarditis patients". News-Medical. 30 November 2022. <https://www.news-medical.net/news/20220119/Impact-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-COVID-19-vaccine-induced-pericarditis-patients.aspx>.

  • Chicago

    Mathur, Neha. "Impact of atrial fibrillation in COVID-19 vaccine-induced pericarditis patients". News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20220119/Impact-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-COVID-19-vaccine-induced-pericarditis-patients.aspx. (accessed November 30, 2022).

  • Harvard

    Mathur, Neha. 2022. Impact of atrial fibrillation in COVID-19 vaccine-induced pericarditis patients. News-Medical, viewed 30 November 2022, https://www.news-medical.net/news/20220119/Impact-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-COVID-19-vaccine-induced-pericarditis-patients.aspx.

Comments

  1. sudha swarnakar sudha swarnakar United States says:

    Hi, I had persistent Afib since 2017. It was under control with Tikosyn for two years till March 2021 when I took the second Pfizer Covid vaccine. Then I went through a number of procedures and finally ablation on 22 August brought me back to normal Synus rhythm. I took Pfizer Booster on 22 April till 4 th May it was NSR but today I am again in Afib. I see it directly linked to Covid Vaccine. Last time also it took three weeks to get into AFIB this time also it took three weeks. I did not want to get the vaccine but as I am 75 years old my doctor suggested I should take it. Here I am again with AFIB due to this Pfizer Covid Vaccine. I am in the Mayo Clinic AFIB group since 2018 and had put this information for other patients. Hope it will add to your data. I am a UCSF patient.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
Post a new comment
Post
You might also like...
Multivalent mRNA-based vaccine may serve as a preventative measure against future flu pandemics