C9100-23B ImagEM X2 EM-CCD Camera from Hamamatsu Photonics

The ImagEM X2 is an extremely versatile camera that quietly delivers 70 frames/s at full frame and up to 1076 frames/s with analog binning and regions of interest. With very high signal to noise in near dark conditions and extremely low dark current, the ImagEM X2 enables quantitative ultra-low light imaging both for long integration times and at high speed. With EM gain off, the extremely deep full well capacity can extract information from the lowest contrast bright images. Additional new features allow for optimized camera triggering, on-board for EM gain protection, streamlined connectivity through IEEE1394b, improved overall signal to noise and increased non-EM dynamic range. Hamamatsu has taken the beloved 512 × 512 EM-CCD sensor and created a masterfully redesigned camera that delivers maximum speed and precision performance.

The ImagEM X2-1K(C9100-24B) 1024×1024 version is also available.


  • Faster readout
  • Corner readout
  • Lower readout noise
  • Mechanical shutter
  • EM gain measurement and calibration
  • IEEE 1394b connectivity
  • SMA triggering ports
  • Direct electron display
  • Black Clip / White Clip function
  • Cooling status output
  • High Sensitivity
  • High QE
  • High EM gain of maximum 1200×
  • Low Noise
  • Minimal dark noise is another benefit of stable cooling performance
  • Highly stabilized control of sensor temperature with either water or forced-air cooling
  • Optimized sensor drive methods significantly reduce the clock induced charge (CIC)
  • Great Stability
  • Highly stabilized EM gain by cooling temperature control
  • Stability of mean bias value (Digitizer Offset)
  • EM gain protection
  • EM gain readjustment
  • Selectable Readout Modes
  • Photon Imaging Mode
  • On-board Image Processing


Type number


Camera head type

Hermetic vacuum-sealed air/water-cooled head*1


Anti-reflection (AR) coatings on both sides, single window

AR mask


Imaging device

Electron Multiplying Back-Thinned Frame Transfer CCD

Effective number of pixels

512 (H)×512 (V)

Cell size

16 μm (H)×16 μm (V)

Effective area

8.19 mm (H) × 8.19 mm (V)

Pixel clock rate (EM-CCD readout)

22 MHz, 11 MHz, 0.6875 MHz

Pixel clock rate (NORMAL CCD readout)

0.6875 MHz

EM (electron multiplying) gain

4× to 1200× (typ.)*2

Ultra low light detection

Photon Imaging mode (1, 2, 3)

Fastest readout speed

70.4 frames/s to 1076 frames/s

Readout noise (EM-CCD readout)

36 electrons (EM gain 4×, at 22 MHz) (rms) (typ.)
25 electrons (EM gain 4×, at 11 MHz) (rms) (typ.)
8 electrons (EM gain 4×, at 0.6875 MHz) (rms) (typ.)
1 electron max. (EM gain 1200×) (rms) (typ.)

Readout noise (NORMAL CCD readout)

8 electrons (at 0.6875 MHz) (rms) (typ.)

Full well capacity

EM-CCD readout: 370 000 electrons (Max. 800 000 electrons) (typ.)*3
NORMAL CCD readout: 140 000 electrons (typ.)

Analog gain

EM-CCD readout (22 MHz): 1×
EM-CCD readout (11 MHz/0.6875 MHz): 0.5×, 1×
Normal CCD readout: 1×, 2×, 3×, 4×, 5×

Cooling temperature (Forced-air cooled)

At temperature control: -65°C stabilized (0°C to +30°C)
At maximum cooling (typ.): -80°C (Room temperature: stable at +20°C)

Cooling temperature (Water cooled)

At temperature control: -80°C stabilized (Water temperature: +20°C)
At maximum cooling (typ.): -100°C (Water temperature: lower than +10°C)

Temperature stability (Forced-air cooled)

±0.01°C (typ.)

Temperature stability (Water cooled)

±0.01°C (typ.)

Dark current (Forced-air cooled)

0.005 electron/pixel/s (-65°C) (typ.)

Dark current (Water cooled)

0.0005 electron/pixel/s (-80°C) (typ.)

Clock induced charge

0.0015 events/pixel/frame (typ.)

Exposure time (Internal sync mode)

13.9 ms to 1 s (22 MHz)
27.2 ms to 2 h (11 MHz)
421.5 ms to 2 h (0.6875 MHz)

Exposure time (External trigger mode)

10 μs to 1 s (22 MHz)
10 μs to 2 h (11 MHz, 0.6875 MHz)

A/D converter

16 bit

Output signal/External control



Every 16 lines (horizontal, vertical) size, position can be set


2×2, 4×4, 8×8, 16×16*4

External trigger mode

Edge trigger, Level trigger, Start trigger, Synchronous readout trigger

Trigger output

Exposure timing output, Programmable timing output (Delay and pulse length are variable.), Trigger ready output

Image processing features (real-time)

Background subtraction, Shading correction, Recursive filter, Frame averaging, Spot noise reducer*5

EM gain protection

EM warning mode, EM protection mode

EM gain readjustment


Lens mount


Power supply

AC 100 V to 240 V, 50 Hz / 60 Hz

Power consumption

Approx. 140 VA

Ambient storage temperature

-10 °C to + 50 °C

Ambient operating temperature

0 °C to + 40 °C

Performance guaranteed temperature

0 °C to + 30 °C

Ambient operating/storage humidity

70 % max. (with no condensation)

*1 The hermetic sealed head maintains a high degree of vacuum, 10-8 Torr, without re-evacuation.
 *2 Even with electron multiplying gain maximum, dark signal is kept at a low level during low light imaging.
 *3 Linearity is not assured when full well capacity is over 370 000 electrons, because of CCD performance.
 *4 8×8 and 16×16 binning are available on special order.
 *5 Recursive filter, frame averaging, and spot noise reducer cannot be used simultaneously.

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