News Medical's "Thought Leaders" series is a selection of articles written by national and
international experts and trusted advisers in health and medicine. All the articles are
written by experts who have been invited as recognised leaders in their fields to provide
a "state of the art" contribution.
My name is James Gimzewski and I am a distinguished professor at UCLA. I'm in the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, but I am also heavily involved in the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA. We were probably the first to pioneer the idea of what is now known as mechanobiology – the study of the mechanical properties of cancer cells as a potential diagnostic tool.
I run a core facility for AFM techniques, biological medical applications. My research is focussed on in the interaction of platelets and cancer cells.
Force microscopy is a technique which would probably be best described with the help of a small finger with an apex just a few atoms in size that can touch objects. This is a learning finger.
My group is interested in host pathogen interaction and we mainly focus on how bacteria enter cells. In essence, the idea is that if you can prevent bacteria from entering cells, then you will prevent illness.
My lab, broadly speaking, is interested in trying to understand interactions between cells and materials. Those could be materials that are present within living tissue or materials that we use for engineering purposes to try to do something of technological or therapeutic interest.
Biomarkers fall into different categories: diagnostic biomarkers, are used to identify a disease; prognostic biomarkers, help clinicians to determine, for example, whether you're more likely to die or have problems with a disease; and there are some that can be used to inform treatment, to determine whether one therapy would be more successful than another.
Vital signs have been around for a long period of time. Taking the pulse is probably one of the oldest examinations that doctors have made to assess patients.
Pittcon is an analytical conference, so naturally my talk will be about analytical chemistry and how analytical chemistry will become increasingly important in delivering healthcare solutions, not only for rich people, but also, hopefully, for poor people across the world.
There are three kinds of problem – though we do not have any reliable quantitative data to know how common they are. Firstly, there is sometimes a delay in making an asthma diagnosis in people who have asthma – this is less common than in the past, but it still happens.
I will talk about the simple but fundamental idea that allowed breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy as well as about MINFLUX nanoscopy, the latest development in the field that for the first time provides true molecular resolution with visible light and standard objective lenses.
It is common to think that combat deployment is the most dangerous part of being a warfighter, and in many ways this is correct. However, warfighters need to do many things before they are cleared to deploy to combat zones. Most cases of exertional heat illness (EHI) reported in the U.S. military occur during non-combat activities, such as training regimens, ruck marches, and operational exercises.
We looked at all hospitalizations in patients with gout. The concern is that gout is often considered as a disease of just the joints, specifically of the big toe. Yet, there have been quite a lot of studies that have talked about the many other comorbidities that occur because of hyperuricemia and gout. The idea is that it's not just the crystal deposits in the joint, but other consequences that are happening because of this disease in the rest of the body.
Intensive care medicine is a young specialty that deals with the medical treatment of the sickest patients in the hospital. Intensive care medicine doctors are called intensivists and are expert physicians with special skills in the management of organ failure.
I'm an MR imaging scientist in the preclinical field. I'm a team leader of the functional and molecular imaging team at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in QST.
It is important to keep in mind that nontuberculous mycobacteria are environmental, and so unlike mycobacterial tuberculosis, generally this is not a person to person transmitted disease. The organisms are found universally in water and soil and so most people are exposed on a daily basis.
Aging is the continuing process of such stress exposures, and with advancing age (normal aging), we must carry lots of senescent cells within our bodies. Senescent cells also often provide some ‘bad influences’ to surrounding healthy cells; such as chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis
Food allergies affect approximately 8% of school children in the United States and the United Kingdom. The highest prevalence of food allergies is in Australia affecting approximately 10% of young children. It is lower in the developing world.
Perioperative practice is quite a specialised area focused on patients who are undergoing surgery. Patients come to theatre for a reason, usually to have an operation or procedure that will correct a condition or perhaps alleviate discomfort.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with abdominal pain and diarrhea being the most common symptoms. It can be challenging to diagnose as gastrointestinal complaints mimicking IBD are common.
They undertook a modelling study based on six states in the US in areas that are at risk of Zika emergence. The main finding of this study was that the total cost of Zika in these sates had a range that went from approximately 183.4 million dollars to 1.2 billion dollars.