Women with preeclampsia during pregnancy have a five-fold increased risk of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) later in life compared to women who don’t develop preeclampsia during pregnancy, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Ali Khashan of University College Cork, Ireland, and colleagues at the Karolinska Institute, Sweden and Liverpool University, UK.
Credit: rawpixel, Pixabay
As the prevalence of kidney disease has risen over recent years, it has become clear that more women have pre-dialysis kidney disease than men. Reproductive history, including the development of preeclampsia during pregnancy, has been hypothesized to play a role. In the new study, researchers analyzed data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 1,366,441 healthy women with 2,665,320 singleton live births in Sweden between 1982 and 2012.
The data revealed that women who had preeclampsia in at least one pregnancy were nearly five times more likely to have ESKD than women who had never had preeclampsia (hazard ratio 4.96; 95%CI 3.89–6.32). The incidence rate of ESKD per 100,000 person-years was 1.85 (95%CI 1.66–2.05) among women with no history of preeclampsia and 12.35 (95%CI 9.61–15.88) among women with a history of pre-eclampsia. Moreover, the association was independent of other factors including maternal age and education, and diagnoses of renal disease or cardiovascular disease before pregnancy.
The new paper “shows that preeclampsia is a sex-specific, independent risk factor for the subsequent development of ESKD,” the authors say. “However, it should be noted that the overall ESKD risk remains small. Whether screening or preventative strategies will reduce the risk of ESKD in women with adverse pregnancy outcomes is worthy of further investigation.”
Khashan, A.S. et al. (2019) Preeclampsia and risk of end stage kidney disease: A Swedish nationwide cohort study. PLOS Medicine. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002875.