Meningitis is an infection of the fluid of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. People sometimes refer to it as spinal meningitis. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ. Viral meningitis is generally less severe and resolves without specific treatment, while bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disability. For bacterial meningitis, it is also important to know which type of bacteria is causing the meningitis because antibiotics can prevent some types from spreading and infecting other people. Before the 1990s, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, but new vaccines being given to all children as part of their routine immunizations have reduced the occurrence of invasive disease due to H. influenzae. Today, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the leading causes of bacterial meningitis.
What is Meningitis?
Meningitis is an infection of the meninges that are membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord.
A new paper, available on the medRxiv* preprint server, presents lessons learned from the implementation of three adult vaccine programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South America.
23 million children missed out on basic vaccines through routine immunization services in 2020 – 3.7 million more than in 2019 - according to official data published today by WHO and UNICEF.
A world-first trial has shown that nose drops of modified 'friendly' bacteria protect against meningitis.
Meningitis is associated with high mortality and frequently causes severe sequelae. Newborn infants are particularly susceptible to this type of infection; they develop meningitis 30 times more often than the general population.
Researchers have produced vaccine-like immune responses to a dangerous bacterium by colonizing 26 healthy volunteers with a related, but harmless, commensal bacterial species. The first-in-human, controlled infection study showed the strategy was safe, as no side effects were reported and the volunteers didn't transmit the commensal bacteria to bedroom-sharers over the 90-day study.
The role of peripheral and brain infections in the development of Alzheimer's disease is the focus of new research at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, funded with a $2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health.
How common COVID-19 is among infants may depend on the degree of the pandemic virus circulating in a community, a new study finds.
Brazilian researchers have simultaneously demonstrated the mechanism linking high blood pressure to elevated intracranial pressure, validated a non-invasive intracranial pressure monitoring method, and proposed a treatment for high blood pressure that does not affect intracranial hypertension.
Travelers abroad may pick up bacteria and other vectors containing genes conferring antimicrobial resistance which remain in the gut when returning to their home country, according to a study published in Genome Medicine.
Among people who have strokes and COVID-19, there is a higher incidence of severe stroke as well as stroke in younger people, according to new data from a multinational study group on COVID-19 and stroke, led by a team of Geisinger researchers.
A new study looking across a large body of research finds further evidence for the safety of vaccines that are Food and Drug Administration-approved and routinely recommended for children, adults and pregnant women.
While the earlier waves of COVID-19 relatively spared children, some of the affected children have developed a systemic inflammatory condition, with occasionally fatal outcomes. Called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), its pathogenesis and risk factors are the subject of a new study on the medRxiv* preprint server.
In a new study, published in the journal JAMA Network, University of Pittsburgh researchers for the Global Consortium Study of Neurologic Dysfunction in COVID-19 found that neurological manifestations were prevalent among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The patients were also at a higher risk of in-hospital mortality.
Patients with clinically diagnosed neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 are six times more likely to die in the hospital than those without the neurological complications, according to an interim analysis from the Global Consortium Study of Neurologic Dysfunction in COVID-19 (GCS-NeuroCOVID).
Scientists at the University of Nottingham have developed an ultrasonic imaging system, which can be deployed on the tip of a hair-thin optical fiber, and will be insertable into the human body to visualize cell abnormalities in 3D.
Scientists are using weather-based surveillance to predict impending meningitis outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, making weather forecasts a possible tool to help health services combat the disease.
News-Medical talks to experts in different areas of the medical sector on why immunization week is so prevalent in 2021.
News-Medical interviews Sir Brian Greenwood about raising awareness for malaria during the COVID-19 pandemic and achieving elimination of the disease.
Professor Frédéric Veyrier of the Institut national de la recherche scientifique has received $711,450 from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for a project on bacteria of the nasopharynx, including Neisseria.
Researchers at the University of Manchester, UK, aimed to systematically review the literature to provide evidence on SARS-CoV-2 and audio-vestibular symptoms. They found that COVID-19 has been tied to hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus.