Epstein-Barr virus reactivation may be the cause of long COVID symptoms

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation resulting from the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection may be the cause of previously unexplained long COVID symptoms -- such as fatigue, brain fog, and rashes -- that occur in approximately 30% of patients after recovery from initial COVID-19 infection. The first evidence linking EBV reactivation to long COVID, as well as an analysis of long COVID prevalence, is outlined in a new long COVID study published in the journal Pathogens.

We ran EBV antibody tests on recovered COVID-19 patients, comparing EBV reactivation rates of those with long COVID symptoms to those without long COVID symptoms. The majority of those with long COVID symptoms were positive for EBV reactivation, yet only 10% of controls indicated reactivation."

Jeffrey E. Gold, Lead Study Author, World Organization

The researchers began by surveying 185 randomly selected patients recovered from COVID-19 and found that 30.3% had long term symptoms consistent with long COVID after initial recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. This included several patients with initially asymptomatic COVID-19 cases who later went on to develop long COVID symptoms.

The researchers then found, in a subset of 68 COVID-19 patients randomly selected from those surveyed, that 66.7% of long COVID subjects versus 10% of controls were positive for EBV reactivation based on positive EBV early antigen-diffuse (EA-D) IgG or EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM titers. The difference was significant (p < 0.001, Fisher's exact test).

"We found similar rates of EBV reactivation in those who had long COVID symptoms for months, as in those with long COVID symptoms that began just weeks after testing positive for COVID-19," said coauthor David J. Hurley, PhD, a professor and molecular microbiologist at the University of Georgia. "This indicated to us that EBV reactivation likely occurs simultaneously or soon after COVID-19 infection."

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and EBV reactivation described in this study opens up new possibilities for long COVID diagnosis and treatment. The researchers indicated that it may be prudent to test patients newly positive for COVID-19 for evidence of EBV reactivation indicated by positive EBV EA-D IgG, EBV VCA IgM, or serum EBV DNA tests. If patients show signs of EBV reactivation, they can be treated early to reduce the intensity and duration of EBV replication, which may help inhibit the development of long COVID.

"As evidence mounts supporting a role for EBV reactivation in the clinical manifestation of acute COVID-19, this study further implicates EBV in the development of long COVID," said Lawrence S. Young, PhD, a virologist at the University of Warwick, and Editor-in-Chief of Pathogens. "If a direct role for EBV reactivation in long COVID is supported by further studies, this would provide opportunities to improve the rational diagnosis of this condition and to consider the therapeutic value of anti-herpesvirus agents such as ganciclovir."

Source:
Journal reference:

Gold, J.E., et al. (2021) Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation. Pathogens. doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060763.

Comments

  1. Cherryl Harris Cherryl Harris United States says:

    .. is that in December 2019 I, and my roommate, came down ill from “not the flu/strep” unknown sickness after he’d traveled to San Antonio, visited his family and stopped by the military base exchange.

    I was sick for a month or so. I never seemed to recover and by the end of February 3020 my doctor had run EBV tests and it seemed I was in a reactivation.

    On 3/8/2020 I was coughed/sneezed full in the face by a small child and by the early hours came down sick with doctor presumed COVID as I went through days of full blown symptoms.  Serious breathing/chest pain/lethargy lasted a few days.  No one took me to the hospital but I didn’t know or care.

    Most COVID symptoms after that lasted for almost 4 months .. then lowered down to only a few symptoms until October when it seemed I was reinfected again but recovery time was less.  A few symptoms lingered after that for months.

    I have more health issues that have arisen since then but who knows if they are due to COVID or other.

    • DORETTA MCHUGH DORETTA MCHUGH United States says:

      I was in San Antonio, also on the post at Ft. Sam Houston when I was exposed to COVID.  My symptoms didn't start showing up until I was back home in SC on January 2, 2020.  I tested negative for flu & strep, but had high fever, a headache from Hell and chills like I've never felt before.  I had EBV back in 2012 and I'm thinking that it has been reactivated as I've now had long-haul issues for the last 2 years.  I've had sensory loss in my feet and toes, tachycardia, vertigo, extreme fatigue, memory loss, brain fog and mental confusion.  I use the Spoon Theory to keep my activity levels well measured.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News Medical.
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