Interleukin-2 (IL-2): Why Does This Cytokine Have Immunostimulatory and Immunoregulatory Functions?

A pleiotropic cytokine central to the regulation of T-cell responses, interleukin 2 (IL-2), plays an essential role in a huge range of other immune modulatory actions.

Interleukin-2: Why does this cytokine have immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory functions?

Image Credit: Sino Biological Inc.

The function of IL-2 is self-mediated by binding to IL-2 receptors (IL-2R). Three subunits of IL-2 receptor exist, which are as follows: α chain (CD25), β chain (CD122) and γ chain (CD132). The latter two of these (namely the β and γ chains) are shared between IL-2 and IL-15 receptor complexes.

The γ chain is also used by IL-4, IL-7 and IL-9, as well as IL-21. IL-2 binds to IL-2Rα alone with low affinity, IL-2 binds to IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ heterodimer with intermediate affinity, and it binds to IL-2α/β/γ heterotrimer with high affinity.

The cellular sensitivity to IL-2 is determined by the expression of IL-2R by different immune cell subsets. Subsequently, IL-2 signaling is transduced through three separate and distinct pathways: JAK-STAT, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK.

In recent years, studies have been undertaken which reveal that the IL-2/IL-2R signaling pathway is a vital target when it comes to developing the treatment of various diseases. These diseases include infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and even cancer.

Today, in order to improve the efficacy and lower toxic effects of IL-2 therapy, new strategies are being developed. In order to facilitate the study of the biology of IL-2, Sino Biological has developed a panel of recombinant IL-2 and IL-2R protein reagents.

Recombinant IL-2 proteins

In addition to therapeutic usage, recombinant IL-2 protein also allows for a number of other functions.

These include the establishment of thymocyte, splenocyte or peripheral blood lymphocyte derived T-cell lines, the culture of IL-2 dependent T-cell lines and NK cell lines, the proliferation of mitogen-activated T cells and NK cells and the generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.

From various species, Sino Biological has been able to develop high activity IL-2 proteins. Thanks to cell proliferation assays, which use CTLL2 cells, the activities of these proteins have been validated.

Human IL-2 (11848-H08H)

Cell proliferation assay using CTLL2 cells. The ED50 is typically 1-5 ng/mL.

Cell proliferation assay using CTLL2 cells. The ED50 is typically 1-5 ng/mL. Image Credit: Sino Biological Inc.

Human IL-2 (11848-HNAY1)

Cell proliferation assay using CTLL2 cells. The ED50 is 0.35-1.4 ng/mL.

Cell proliferation assay using CTLL2 cells. The ED50 is 0.35-1.4 ng/mL. Image Credit: Sino Biological Inc.

Recombinant IL-2 receptor proteins

In order to accelerate the research of IL-2/ IL-2R signaling, IL-2 receptors with different subunits have been developed.

Source: Sino Biological Inc.

Cat# Species Receptor Expressed
Host
Tag Activity
Validated
10165-H02H Human IL-2Rα HEK293 hFc Bind to human IL-2
10165-H08H Human IL-2Rα HEK293 His Inhibit IL-2 induced
proliferation
50292-M02H Mouse IL-2Rα HEK293 hFc  
80074-R08B Rat IL-2Rα Insect His  
90265-C02H Cynomolgus IL-2Rα HEK293 hFc  
90265-C27H-B Rhesus IL-2Rα HEK293 AVI & His  
10696-H05H Human IL-2Rβ HEK293 mFc Bind to human IL-2
50792-M08H Mouse IL-2Rβ HEK293 His  
70082-D02H Canine IL-2Rβ HEK293 hFc  
10555-H08H Human IL-2Rγ HEK293 His  
10555-H08B Human IL-2Rγ Insect His Bind to rat IL-2
50087-M03H Mouse IL-2Rγ HEK293 Fc & His  
80197-R02H Rat IL-2Rγ HEK293 hFc  

 

Cytokines share the IL-2R γ chain

When it comes to the regulation of immune responses, dominant roles are played by the cytokines that share the common gamma-chain (γc) within their receptor subunits, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21.

Amongst members of the γc family, IL-15 shares many of the same biological activities to IL-2, as they bind common hematopoietic receptor (IL-2/15Rβ & γc) subunits and may be in competition for the same receptor. As well as the phosphorylation and activation of transcription activators STAT3, STAT5 and STAT6, IL-15 induces the activation of JAK kinases.  

About Sino Biological Inc.

Sino Biological is an international reagent supplier and service provider. The company specializes in recombinant protein production and antibody development. All of Sino Biological's products are independently developed and produced, including recombinant proteins, antibodies and cDNA clones. Sino Biological is the researchers' one-stop technical services shop for the advanced technology platforms they need to make advancements. In addition, Sino Biological offers pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology firms pre-clinical production technology services for hundreds of monoclonal antibody drug candidates.

Sino Biological's core business

Sino Biological is committed to providing high-quality recombinant protein and antibody reagents and to being a one-stop technical services shop for life science researchers around the world. All of our products are independently developed and produced. In addition, we offer pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology firms pre-clinical production technology services for hundreds of monoclonal antibody drug candidates. Our product quality control indicators meet rigorous requirements for clinical use samples. It takes only a few weeks for us to produce 1 to 30 grams of purified monoclonal antibody from gene sequencing.


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Last updated: Jul 26, 2021 at 3:35 AM

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