What are the applications of neuronal antibodies in neuroscience?

The nervous system, an orchestra of a diversity of neuronal cell types, oversees complex cognitive functions. Accurately identifying these cells is important in neuroscience research.

What are the applications of neuronal antibodies in neuroscience?

Image Credit: Aneuro - An ACROBiosystems Brand

Neural antibodies can specifically recognize and label molecules on nerve cells, assisting in setting apart and identifying various nerve cells and finding their roles. These antibodies have huge potential in unraveling mechanisms behind neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), creating a road for improving diagnosis and targeted therapies. These applications also help elucidate neural development, regeneration, and drug development.

Development of the Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is a complex system built through the coordinated actions of glial cells and neurons. Gaining comprehension of its development is critical. Neural progenitor cells in the neuroectoderm disperse into radial glial cells, indirectly or directly creating neurons. Through the progression of development, radial glial cells change into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which provide support for neurons and maintain axonal integrity, respectively. Microglia, derived from embryonic yolk sac monocytes, is part of immune surveillance and debris clearance within the CNS.

The development of neuronal and glial cells in the central nervous system

The development of neuronal and glial cells in the central nervous system. Image Source: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.754606
 

The application of neural antibodies

Identification of nerve cell types

Identifying nerve cell types is critical to neuroscience research. For example, the Oligodendrocyte Transcription Factor 2 (Olig2) antibody is commonly used to identify oligodendrocytes. The anti-human Olig2 polyclonal antibody created by Yokoo et al. demonstrated outstanding potential for application in immunohistochemical analysis. This antibody can specifically label oligodendrocytes in normal human brain tissue and oligodendrogliomas. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that oligodendrogliomas have a lighter positive reaction to the Olig2 antibody, which was significantly differentiated from oligodendrocytes, suggesting the potential to apply this antibody in diagnosing some brain tumors.

Diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases

Antibodies like Neuronal nuclei antigen (NeuN) are critical in studying neurodegenerative diseases. In research by Yu et al., NeuN antibody was utilized to label neurons to watch their transformations in neurodegenerative diseases and further explore neuronal damage mechanisms.

In research by Zhao et al., NeuN antibody was utilized to label and quantify accumulations of Aβ1-42 in neurons. These abnormal accumulations of Aβ are a significant pathological characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases like AD. This method allows for greater accuracy in assessing disease progression and provides a critical basis for early diagnosis and monitoring.

Research on neural development and neurogenesis

Neural antibodies have been a popular topic of research in neural development and neurogenesis. Recent research by Nathan R. Strogulski's team at Ireland’s University of Dublin showed that Nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) cells can potentially induce neurogenesis in animal models.

NG2 cells can differentiate into neurons in mature brains, demonstrating essential potential in regeneration and providing new insights for developing alternative treatments for neural injuries. NG2 antibodies can help label and track the changes in these cells throughout the process of neurogenesis, offering an evaluation of the therapeutic effects.

ACROBiosystems has released a series of particular, stable, and sensitive neural antibodies: GFAP, NeuN, NG2, Olig2, Tbr1. These antibodies offer precise identification of varying types of neural cells, assisting in a complete understanding and study of the biological features, functions, and roles of neural cells in neurodegenerative diseases.

References

  1. Neely S A, Lyons D A. Insights into central nervous system glial cell formation and function from zebrafish[J]. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 2021, 9: 754606. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.754606
  2. Yokoo H, Nobusawa S, Takebayashi H, et al. Anti-human Olig2 antibody as a useful immunohistochemical marker of normal oligodendrocytes and gliomas[J]. The American journal of pathology, 2004, 164(5): 1717-1725. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63730-3
  3. Yu L, Chen C, Wang L F, et al. Neuroprotective effect of kaempferol glycosides against brain injury and neuroinflammation by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and STAT3 in transient focal stroke[J]. PloS one, 2013, 8(2): e55839. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055839
  4. Zhao W, Dumanis S B, Tamboli I Y, et al. Human APOE genotype affects intraneuronal Aβ1–42 accumulation in a lentiviral gene transfer model[J]. Human molecular genetics, 2014, 23(5): 1365-1375. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt525
  5. Rigo Y R, Benvenutti R, Portela L V, et al. Neurogenic potential of NG2 in neurotrauma: a systematic review[J]. Neural Regeneration Research, 2024, 19(12): 2673-2683. https://doi.org/10.4103/NRR.NRR-D-23-01031
  6. Englund C, Fink A, Lau C, et al. Pax6, Tbr2, and Tbr1 are expressed sequentially by radial glia, intermediate progenitor cells, and postmitotic neurons in develo** neocortex[J]. Journal of Neuroscience, 2005, 25(1): 247-251. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2899-04.2005
  7. Jurga A M, Paleczna M, Kadluczka J, et al. Beyond the GFAP-astrocyte protein markers in the brain[J]. Biomolecules, 2021, 11(9): 1361. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11091361
  8. Alekseeva O S, Gusel’nikova V V, Beznin G V, et al. Prospects for the application of neun nuclear protein as a marker of the functional state of nerve cells in vertebrates[J]. Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology, 2015, 51: 357-369. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0022093015050014

About ACROBiosystems

Neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are pressing global health issues, contributing substantially to the worldwide disease burden. However, the availability of more effective and accurate research tools remains limited, partly due to incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms, including disease models, markers, and appropriate analysis platforms.

To address these challenges, ACROBiosystems launched Aneuro, a pioneering brand that encompasses full suite of products dedicated to advancing neuroscience research.

Aneuro’s products include target proteins for therapeutic research, biomarker proteins for diagnostic research, pre-formed fibrils (PFFs) for modeling neurodegeneration, neural factors for cell culture, antibodies for nerve cell identification and solutions for in vivo electrophysiology recordings. In addition, Aneuro also offers customized services tailored to the specific needs.

By providing these products and services, Aneuro aims to be a one-stop shop for neuroscience researchers, offering everything they need to advance their research from target discovery to therapeutic development. We are committed to continuous innovation and improvement, striving to bring the latest advances in neuroscience research to our customers.


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Last updated: Jul 15, 2024 at 5:31 AM

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